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Definitions and Descriptions.


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S

SOCMINT

Socmint, or social media intelligence, is the practice of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information from social media platforms for the purpose of understanding trends, sentiments, and behaviors within a specific group or community. This information can be used by businesses, government agencies, or individuals to make informed decisions or take specific actions.

Examples of socmint include:

  1. A company analyzing customer reviews on their social media pages to understand customer satisfaction levels and identify areas for improvement.

  2. A government agency monitoring social media for potential threats or warnings of a crisis, such as a natural disaster or terrorist attack.

  3. An individual using socmint techniques to understand the online behavior and interests of their target audience, in order to craft more effective marketing campaigns.

  4. A political campaign team using socmint to analyze social media conversations about their candidate, in order to tailor their messaging and outreach efforts.



Static Malware Analysis

Static malware analysis is the process of analyzing and examining a piece of malware without actually running or executing it. This means that the malware is analyzed in its dormant state, without the need to create a sandbox or emulate a system environment in which it can run.

There are several methods of static malware analysis, including:

  1. Disassembly: This involves reversing the compiled code of the malware into its original source code. This can reveal the inner workings and intended function of the malware.

  2. Decompilation: This process involves converting the compiled code back into a high-level programming language, such as C or Python. This can make it easier to understand the code and see what it is intended to do.

  3. String analysis: This involves examining the strings of characters within the malware code, as these can often contain clues about its intended function or the techniques it uses.

  4. File header analysis: This involves examining the metadata of the malware file, such as the file type, size, and creation date, which can provide clues about its origin and purpose.

An example of static malware analysis might be examining a piece of ransomware to determine how it encrypts files and what techniques it uses to evade detection. Another example might be analyzing a trojan horse to determine how it is delivered and what actions it takes once it has been installed on a system.



Steganography

Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, or other transmission within another file, message, or transmission. It is used to hide the presence of a hidden message so as to avoid detection or scrutiny.

One of the most common examples of steganography is when someone hides a message or file within an image file. For example, the sender may hide text in an image by changing the color of certain pixels of the image to a specific set of values not visible to the naked eye.

Another commonly used steganographic technique is to embed hidden messages within audio, video, or multimedia files. The sender will employ a specific algorithm to embed the message within the data of the file and make it undetectable once the file is sent. 

Finally, the use of white space in communication is also considered a form steganography. This involves the sender leaving gaps between words or letters. This allows the sender to disguise a secret message within the text by leaving gaps that only the recipient will be aware of. 

Steganography is becoming increasingly popular among cyber criminals and terrorists as it helps them conceal sensitive data and spread their message across the internet without detection.


Surface/Deep/Dark Web

The surface web, deep web, and dark web are three different layers of the internet, each with its own unique characteristics and accessibility.

The surface web is the portion of the internet that is easily accessible to anyone with an internet connection. It consists of websites that can be found through search engines like Google, and it is the part of the internet that most people use on a daily basis. Examples of surface web content include social media platforms, news websites, and online shopping sites.

The deep web is a layer of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and is not easily accessible to the general public. It consists of websites and databases that are not meant to be publicly available, such as government databases, internal company systems, and password-protected websites. Accessing the deep web requires specific software or authorization, and it is often used for legitimate purposes, such as conducting research or accessing private data.

The dark web is a part of the internet that is accessible only through specialized software, such as the Tor network. It is known for its anonymity and is often used for illegal activities, such as the sale of illegal goods and services, human trafficking, and the sharing of sensitive information. The dark web is not indexed by search engines and is not easily accessible to the general public.

In summary, the surface web is the part of the internet that is easily accessible and widely used, the deep web is a layer of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and requires special access, and the dark web is a part of the internet that is only accessible through specialized software and is often used for illegal activities.



T

TECHINT

Techint is a term that refers to the technical intelligence of an organization or individual. It is the ability to gather, analyze, and use technical information in order to make informed decisions, solve problems, and develop new technologies.

Examples of techint might include:

  1. Researching new technologies and materials in order to improve a product or process. For example, a manufacturer might use techint to research the properties of different plastics in order to choose the best one for a particular application.

  2. Analyzing technical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and potential problems. For example, a company might use techint to analyze data from its manufacturing processes in order to identify areas of inefficiency or potential failure.

  3. Gathering and analyzing technical information in order to inform decision-making processes. For example, a company might use techint to evaluate the costs and benefits of different production methods in order to choose the most cost-effective one.

  4. Developing new technologies based on technical research and analysis. For example, a company might use techint to identify opportunities for innovation and then use that information to create new products or processes.

Overall, techint is an important tool for organizations and individuals who want to make informed, data-driven decisions and stay ahead of the curve in a rapidly changing world. So, it is a very important aspect in the development and growth of any organization or individual.


Threat Hunting

Threat hunting is the proactive process of searching for and identifying potential threats within an organization's network. It involves the use of specialized tools and techniques to identify patterns of malicious activity or indicators of compromise (IOCs) that may not be detected by traditional security measures.

Here are some examples of threat hunting activities:

  1. Analyzing network traffic: Threat hunters may examine network traffic logs to identify unusual or suspicious activity, such as traffic from known malware domains or traffic patterns that suggest an attacker is attempting to exfiltrate data.

  2. Searching for IOCs: Threat hunters may use tools such as antivirus software or intrusion detection systems (IDS) to search for known indicators of compromise, such as specific file hashes or IP addresses associated with known malware.

  3. Conducting system audits: Threat hunters may conduct audits of systems and servers to identify vulnerabilities or misconfigurations that could be exploited by attackers.

  4. Analyzing system logs: Threat hunters may review system logs, such as event logs or firewall logs, to identify unusual activity or events that may indicate the presence of a threat.

  5. Correlating data: Threat hunters may analyze data from various sources, such as network traffic logs, system logs, and user activity logs, to identify patterns or correlations that may indicate the presence of a threat.

Overall, the goal of threat hunting is to identify and mitigate potential threats before they can cause harm to an organization. By proactively searching for threats and identifying indicators of compromise, threat hunters can help to prevent data breaches and other security incidents.



Threat Intelligence

Threat intelligence is information about current and potential threats to an organization or individuals that can be used to inform decision-making and take proactive measures to prevent or mitigate harm. This can include information about cyber threats such as malware or phishing campaigns, as well as physical threats such as terrorism or organized crime.

There are several types of threat intelligence, including:

  • Strategic threat intelligence: This type of threat intelligence is focused on long-term trends and patterns that can inform an organization's overall security posture. It might include information about the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by threat actors, as well as analysis of the potential impact of these threats on the organization.

  • Operational threat intelligence: This type of threat intelligence is focused on more immediate threats that are currently facing an organization. It might include information about ongoing phishing campaigns or zero-day vulnerabilities that need to be addressed.

  • Tactical threat intelligence: This type of threat intelligence is focused on very specific threats that require a quick response. It might include information about a specific malware variant that has been used to compromise an organization's systems, or a piece of intelligence that helps to identify the source of an attack.

There are many sources of threat intelligence, including:

  • Internal sources: This might include information from an organization's own security tools, such as firewall logs or antivirus software.

  • External sources: This might include information from government agencies, industry groups, or commercial vendors that specialize in gathering and analyzing threat intelligence.

  • Open source: This might include information from publicly available sources such as social media, news articles, and blogs.

Here is an example of how an organization might use threat intelligence:

  • A financial institution becomes aware of a new phishing campaign targeting its customers. The institution's security team analyzes the phishing emails and discovers that the attackers are using a new strain of malware to infect victims' computers.

  • The security team checks its own systems and finds that a small number of employees have been infected by the malware. It quickly isolates these systems to prevent the malware from spreading.

  • The security team then uses the information it has gathered about the phishing campaign and the malware to inform its customers about the threat and to advise them on how to protect themselves. It also uses this information to update its own security systems and processes to better defend against this type of attack in the future.



Tor

Tor summarized 


The Tor network is a network of servers that allows users to browse the Internet anonymously. When you use the Tor network, your internet traffic is routed through a series of servers, or "nodes," before it reaches its final destination. This makes it difficult for anyone to track your online activities or to identify your location.


The Tor network was originally developed by the U.S. Navy to protect government communications, but it is now used by a wide range of people, including journalists, activists, and ordinary individuals who want to protect their privacy online.


To use the Tor network, you need to install a piece of software called the Tor Browser, which is available for free from the Tor Project website. The Tor Browser is based on the Firefox web browser, and it comes with a number of privacy-enhancing features, such as blocking third-party cookies and preventing websites from tracking your online activities.


While the Tor network can be a valuable tool for protecting your privacy online, it is important to note that it is not foolproof and that it can sometimes be used for illegal purposes, such as accessing websites that host illegal content or facilitating the sale of illegal goods.


Tor Hidden Service

A Tor hidden service is a website or service that is only accessible through the Tor network, a system designed to allow anonymous communication. Hidden services can be used for a variety of purposes, including the protection of privacy and the facilitation of illegal activities.

To access a hidden service, users must use the Tor Browser, which is a modified version of the Firefox browser that routes traffic through the Tor network. Instead of a traditional domain name, hidden services use a unique .onion address, which can only be accessed through the Tor network.

For example, the hidden service known as the "Silk Road" was a black market for the sale of illegal drugs, and could only be accessed through the Tor network using the .onion address "silkroad6ownowfk.onion" (no longer working) .

The .onion DNS system works by routing traffic through a series of randomly-selected servers, known as "relays", in order to obscure the identity and location of the user and the hidden service. This makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to track the activity of users and hidden services on the Tor network.

However, it is important to note that while the Tor network and hidden services can provide anonymity, they are not completely untraceable. Law enforcement agencies have been able to identify and track users and hidden services on the Tor network using a variety of techniques, such as network analysis and exploiting vulnerabilities in the network.

Overall, the Tor network and hidden services provide a way for users to communicate and access content anonymously.



TTP

TTP, or Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, refers to the methods and strategies that hackers use to carry out their attacks. These tactics are constantly evolving as hackers develop new techniques and adapt to changing technology and security measures. Some common TTPs used by hackers include:

  1. Phishing attacks: Hackers send fake emails or social media messages that appear to be from a legitimate source in order to trick people into giving away sensitive information such as login credentials or financial information. For example, a hacker may send an email pretending to be from a bank, asking the recipient to confirm their account details for security purposes.

  2. Malware: Hackers use malicious software, or malware, to infect a device or network and gain access to sensitive information. Malware can come in many forms, such as viruses, Trojans, and ransomware. For example, a hacker may send a malware-laden email attachment that infects a computer when opened.

  3. SQL injection: Hackers use SQL injection to access and manipulate a database by injecting malicious code into a website’s input fields. For example, a hacker may enter a string of code into a login form on a website, allowing them to access the site’s database without proper authentication.

  4. Man-in-the-middle attacks: Hackers use this tactic to intercept and alter communications between two parties in order to gain access to sensitive information. For example, a hacker may set up a fake Wi-Fi hotspot and trick people into connecting to it, allowing the hacker to intercept and view their online activity.

  5. Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks: Hackers use DDoS attacks to flood a website or network with traffic, rendering it inaccessible to users. For example, a hacker may use a network of infected computers to send a large number of requests to a website, overwhelming the server and causing it to crash.

Overall, TTPs are constantly evolving as hackers develop new techniques and adapt to changing technology and security measures. It is important for individuals and organizations to stay aware of these tactics and take steps to protect themselves against potential attacks




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