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Definitions and Descriptions.


Browse the glossary using this index

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M

Malware Analysis

Malware analysis is the process of studying and examining malicious software (malware) in order to understand how it works, what it does, and how it can be detected and removed. This is typically done by security professionals, researchers, and other experts who specialize in analyzing and identifying malware threats.

There are several different techniques and approaches that can be used in malware analysis, including:

  1. Static analysis: This involves examining the code or structure of the malware without actually executing it. This can be done manually or using automated tools, and can help identify the specific functions and capabilities of the malware.

  2. Dynamic analysis: This involves running the malware in a controlled environment (such as a sandbox) in order to observe its behavior and effects. This can help identify how the malware interacts with other systems and processes, and what it is designed to do.

  3. Reverse engineering: This involves disassembling the malware and examining its underlying code in order to understand how it works and what it does. This can be done manually or using specialized tools.

Examples of malware analysis include:

  1. Identifying a new strain of ransomware and determining how it encrypts files and demands payment from victims.

  2. Analyzing a malware sample to determine its origin, target, and intended purpose.

  3. Examining a malicious email attachment in order to understand how it infects a computer and what it does once it is executed.

  4. Reverse engineering a piece of malware to identify vulnerabilities or weaknesses that can be exploited to remove or mitigate its effects.



MBR

The master boot record (MBR) is a small piece of code located on the first sector of a hard drive that is responsible for booting the operating system. When a computer is turned on, the MBR is loaded into memory and executes the bootloader, which then loads the operating system.

The MBR consists of several components, including:

  1. A bootstrap program: This is a small piece of code that is responsible for loading the bootloader into memory.

  2. A partition table: This table contains information about the layout of the hard drive, including the location and size of each partition.

  3. A disk signature: This is a unique identifier for the hard drive that is used to identify it to the operating system.

The MBR has a fixed size of 512 bytes and is typically stored on a hard drive in the first sector. It is important to note that the MBR is separate from the bootloader and the operating system, and is not affected by changes to these components.

One example of the importance of the MBR is in the case of malware that infects the MBR. Some types of malware, such as bootkits, are designed to infect the MBR and modify the boot process in order to gain access to the system. This can allow the malware to persist even after the operating system is reinstalled, making it difficult to remove.

In order to protect against MBR infections, it is important to regularly update the operating system and antivirus software, and to be cautious when downloading and installing software from untrusted sources. Additionally, it is a good practice to regularly create backups of the MBR in case it is compromised.



Meta Data

Meta data refers to data about data, or information that provides context and context for a specific set of data. In computer forensics, meta data can be incredibly useful in helping to identify and understand the context of various types of data that may be present on a computer or digital device.

Here are some examples of meta data in computer forensics:

  1. File metadata: This refers to information about a specific file, such as its name, size, creation date, last modified date, and any other relevant details. For example, if a forensic investigator is examining a computer for evidence of illegal activity, they may look at the file metadata for files that were created or modified around the time of the alleged crime.

  2. Email metadata: Email metadata includes information about an email message, such as the sender, recipient, subject line, and any other details that may be relevant to the investigation. For example, if an investigator is looking at emails related to an insider trading case, they may look at the metadata for emails sent between two individuals in order to identify any patterns or connections.

  3. Web browser metadata: Web browsers often store metadata about the websites that a user visits, such as the URL, title, and date visited. This can be useful in forensic investigations to identify which websites a person has visited and when.

  4. Exif metadata: Exif metadata refers to information that is embedded in a digital image file, such as the camera make and model, date and time the photo was taken, and any other details about the photograph. This can be useful in forensic investigations to help identify the origin of an image or to establish a timeline of events.

Overall, meta data can provide valuable context and context for computer forensics investigations, helping investigators to identify patterns, connections, and trends in the data they are examining




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