Definitions and Descriptions.
The plain view doctrine is a legal principle that allows law enforcement officers to seize evidence that is in plain view without a warrant. This doctrine is based on the idea that if an officer is lawfully present in a location and sees evidence of a crime in plain view, they have the right to seize that evidence without the need for a warrant.
Here are some examples of how the plain view doctrine might be applied:
There are some limitations to the plain view doctrine. The evidence must be in plain view, meaning that it is clearly visible to the officer. The officer must also be lawfully present in the location where the evidence is found. Additionally, the officer must have probable cause to believe that the evidence is connected to a crime.
Here are some examples of how the plain view doctrine might be applied in digital forensics:
Overall, the plain view doctrine allows law enforcement officers to seize evidence that is in plain view if they have a legitimate reason for being in the location where the evidence is found and if the evidence is clearly related to a crime. This doctrine can be a powerful tool for digital forensics investigators, as it allows them to seize electronic devices and data without having to obtain a warrant.
Preservation of Evidence
Preservation of evidence refers to the process of safeguarding and protecting physical or digital evidence that may be used as evidence in a legal or investigative context. It involves ensuring that the evidence is collected, stored, and handled in a way that maintains its integrity and authenticity.
There are several reasons why it is important to preserve evidence. First, preserving evidence helps to ensure that it is available for use in legal proceedings. For example, if a crime has been committed, the police may need to collect physical evidence such as fingerprints, DNA, or other forensic evidence to help identify the perpetrator. If this evidence is not properly preserved, it may be contaminated, damaged, or lost, making it difficult or impossible to use in a court of law.
Second, preserving evidence helps to establish the chain of custody, which refers to the record of who has had possession of the evidence at different points in time. This is important because it helps to establish the authenticity and reliability of the evidence. For example, if the police collect evidence from a crime scene, they must maintain a record of who handled the evidence, how it was stored, and how it was transported to ensure that it is not compromised in any way.
Examples of preservation of evidence include:
Probable cause refers to the legal standard that must be met in order to justify the search or seizure of property or the arrest of an individual. It requires that there be a reasonable belief that a crime has been committed or is about to be committed, and that the property or person in question is connected to the crime in some way.
Here are some examples of probable cause:
Probable cause must be based on specific facts and circumstances, and cannot be based on mere suspicion or speculation. It is an important legal principle that helps to protect the rights of individuals and ensure that law enforcement has a valid reason for conducting searches, seizures, or arrests.
Probable cause in digital forensics refers to the standard of evidence required for a forensic investigator to justify the search, seizure, and examination of digital devices or data. In the Us, this standard is based on the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures.
In order to establish probable cause in digital forensics, an investigator must provide evidence that suggests that a crime has been committed and that digital devices or data may contain evidence of that crime. This evidence may be based on a variety of factors, including witness testimony, physical evidence, or other circumstances that support the belief that a crime has been committed.
Here are some examples of probable cause in digital forensics:
Overall, probable cause in digital forensics is a critical standard that must be met in order for forensic investigators to conduct searches and seizures of digital devices and data. It helps to ensure that the privacy rights of individuals are protected while also allowing investigators to gather the necessary evidence to solve crimes and bring perpetrators to justice
A purple team is an internal security team that combines the skills of both red and blue teams to create comprehensive security solutions. Red teams are responsible for offensive actions, such as penetration testing and simulation of attacks, while blue teams are responsible for defensive actions such as system hardening and incident response.
Purple teams use a combination of both offensive and defensive techniques to increase their structured review of systems and networks. They use the same tools and techniques employed in the red and blue teams, but take extra time to analyze the results and suggest corrective measures to improve the security of the system or network.
Purple teams also focus on testing and validating an organization’s security processes, such as policy, patch management, backup and recovery. This ensures that operational and security processes are understood and correctly configured. Further, purple teams ensure that the organization conducts periodic testing and maintains up-to-date procedures and processes.
The goal of purple teams is to augment the capabilities of red and blue teams to explore the most important vulnerabilities and proactively ensure that the organization’s defenses remain secure. This typically includes the following steps:
Purple teams enable organizations to have a comprehensive view of their security posture. By combining the perspectives of red and blue teams, organizations can gain a more holistic view of the network and identify any weaknesses or threat vectors. Furthermore, purple teams can increase security levels and proactively safeguard the organization’s networks and infrastructure against external threats.
Pyramid of Pain
The threat hunting pyramid of pain is a concept that describes the progression of an adversary's actions in an attack, from initial access to the final goal of the attack. It is a way for security professionals to visualize and understand the different stages of an attack and how they can detect and respond to it.
The pyramid consists of five levels:
In threat hunting, security professionals will look for indicators of compromise at each level of the pyramid, starting with initial access and working their way up. For example, they might look for phishing emails or suspicious activity in system logs to identify initial access. They might then look for signs of malware execution or persistence, such as strange processes running or changes to system policies. By understanding the steps an adversary takes in an attack, security professionals can better detect and respond to threats.