Skip to main content
Completion requirements

Definitions and Descriptions.


Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

S

Script Kiddie

A script kiddie (also known as a skiddie) is an individual who uses pre-written scripts or code—often stolen or borrowed without permission or knowledge—to attack computer systems or networks. Script kiddies are not necessarily malicious hackers, and the term is often used to describe those with little or no technical knowledge who use scripts or programs written by more skilled hackers to launch simple attacks against unsuspecting victims.

These attacks typically involve using vulnerable programs to gain unauthorized access to systems, networks, or websites. For example, a script kiddie may borrow or steal someone else’s script or program and use it to exploit vulnerable software and gain access to the system. Script kiddies will often target systems or networks for their own amusement and may not have any malicious intent.

Though script kiddies may possess some basic knowledge of computer programming and coding, they often lack the technical expertise necessary to understand the risks associated with their attacks. As a result, their activities may cause unnecessary disruption or damage to systems.

The term "script kiddie" is often used negatively and viewed derogatorily by experienced hackers and cybersecurity professionals. Script kiddies are often viewed as irresponsible and reckless, and their activities can be dangerous for both them and those they target.


SDR

An SDR radio, or software-defined radio, is a radio communication system that uses software to define the characteristics of the radio signal. This allows the radio to be reconfigured and adapt to different frequencies and modes without the need for hardware changes.

SDR radios have become increasingly popular in recent years due to their flexibility and ability to support a wide range of communication protocols. They can be used for a variety of purposes, including amateur radio, military communications, and commercial applications.

One of the key benefits of SDR radios is that they can be easily modified and customized using software. This allows users to adapt the radio to their specific needs and requirements, rather than being limited to the capabilities of a fixed hardware design.

For example, an amateur radio operator may use an SDR radio to receive and transmit on a wide range of frequencies, including shortwave, medium wave, and high frequency. They may also use software to add features such as digital voice decoding or automatic frequency control.

Another example of an SDR radio is the HackRF, which is a low-cost, open-source SDR radio that can be used for a variety of purposes, including wireless testing, RF analysis, and digital signal processing. The HackRF can be programmed and modified using software, making it a popular choice among hobbyists and researchers.

Overall, SDR radios are a versatile and flexible tool for radio communication, and can be customized and adapted to a wide range of purposes using software. They offer a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional hardware-based radios.



SIGINT

Sigint, or Signals Intelligence, refers to the collection and analysis of electronic signals and communications for the purpose of obtaining strategic, military, or intelligence information. This can include intercepting and analyzing phone calls, emails, and other electronic communication, as well as tracking and analyzing satellite and radar signals.

Examples of Sigint activities include:

  1. Monitoring and intercepting phone calls and emails between foreign government officials to gather information about their plans and intentions.

  2. Tracking and analyzing satellite signals to determine the location and movements of foreign military units.

  3. Analyzing radar signals to determine the capabilities and capabilities of foreign military aircraft.

  4. Monitoring social media and other online communication to gather intelligence on political or military activities in other countries.

  5. Analyzing and decoding encrypted communications to gather sensitive information.

Overall, Sigint is an important tool for intelligence agencies to gather and analyze information about foreign governments, military activities, and other strategic information that may be relevant to national security.


Sock Puppet

A sock puppet account for investigations is a fake or dummy account that is used by investigators for the purpose of gathering information or conducting covert operations. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to gather intelligence on a suspect, to infiltrate a group or organization, or to gather evidence in a criminal or civil case.

One example of a sock puppet account for investigations might be an investigator creating a fake social media account and using it to interact with a suspect or group of suspects in order to gather information about their activities. The investigator might use the account to ask questions, make small talk, or even try to befriend the suspects in order to gain their trust and gather more information about their activities.

Another example might be an investigator creating a fake account and using it to pose as a member of a particular group or organization in order to gather intelligence about their operations or activities. This could involve the investigator joining online forums or chat groups, participating in discussions, and gathering information about the group's beliefs, goals, and activities.

To make a sock puppet account for online investigations, follow these steps:

  1. Choose a platform: Decide which platform you will be using for your sock puppet account, such as social media, online forums, or chat groups.

  2. Create the account: Follow the steps to create a new account on the chosen platform. Use a fake name and other personal information to create the appearance of a real person.

  3. Customize the account: Add a profile picture and any other personal details that will help the account appear genuine.

  4. Begin interacting: Start using the sock puppet account to interact with other users on the platform. Depending on the purpose of the investigation, this may involve asking questions, joining discussions, or even trying to make friends with suspects or other individuals of interest.

  5. Monitor and gather information: Keep track of the interactions and information gathered through the sock puppet account, making note of any relevant details or evidence.

  6. Dispose of the account: When the investigation is complete, it is important to dispose of the sock puppet account in a way that does not arouse suspicion. This may involve deleting the account or simply leaving it inactive. Overall, the key to a successful sock puppet account for online investigations is to create a believable persona and gather information in a covert and non-intrusive manner.

There are several operational security (OPSEC) considerations to keep in mind when using sock puppet accounts for investigations:

  1. Cover story: It is important to have a believable cover story for the sock puppet account, in order to avoid arousing suspicion or drawing attention to the account. This may involve creating a fake name, location, and personal details for the account.

  2. Communications: When communicating through the sock puppet account, it is important to be careful about what information is shared and with whom. This includes avoiding revealing personal details or sensitive information that could compromise the investigation.

  3. Access: It is important to carefully control access to the sock puppet account, including who can see the account and who has the ability to log in and use it.

  4. Evidence: Any information or evidence gathered through the sock puppet account must be properly documented and handled in accordance with laws and regulations.

  5. Disposal: When the investigation is complete, it is important to properly dispose of the sock puppet account in a way that does not arouse suspicion or draw attention to the account.

Overall, it is important to be mindful of OPSEC considerations when using sock puppet accounts for investigations in order to protect the integrity of the investigation and avoid compromising sensitive information.

Overall, sock puppet accounts for investigations are a valuable tool for investigators as they allow them to gather information and evidence in a covert and non-intrusive manner. By using a fake account, investigators can gather valuable intelligence without arousing suspicion or alerting suspects to their presence.



SOCMINT

Socmint, or social media intelligence, is the practice of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information from social media platforms for the purpose of understanding trends, sentiments, and behaviors within a specific group or community. This information can be used by businesses, government agencies, or individuals to make informed decisions or take specific actions.

Examples of socmint include:

  1. A company analyzing customer reviews on their social media pages to understand customer satisfaction levels and identify areas for improvement.

  2. A government agency monitoring social media for potential threats or warnings of a crisis, such as a natural disaster or terrorist attack.

  3. An individual using socmint techniques to understand the online behavior and interests of their target audience, in order to craft more effective marketing campaigns.

  4. A political campaign team using socmint to analyze social media conversations about their candidate, in order to tailor their messaging and outreach efforts.



Static Malware Analysis

Static malware analysis is the process of analyzing and examining a piece of malware without actually running or executing it. This means that the malware is analyzed in its dormant state, without the need to create a sandbox or emulate a system environment in which it can run.

There are several methods of static malware analysis, including:

  1. Disassembly: This involves reversing the compiled code of the malware into its original source code. This can reveal the inner workings and intended function of the malware.

  2. Decompilation: This process involves converting the compiled code back into a high-level programming language, such as C or Python. This can make it easier to understand the code and see what it is intended to do.

  3. String analysis: This involves examining the strings of characters within the malware code, as these can often contain clues about its intended function or the techniques it uses.

  4. File header analysis: This involves examining the metadata of the malware file, such as the file type, size, and creation date, which can provide clues about its origin and purpose.

An example of static malware analysis might be examining a piece of ransomware to determine how it encrypts files and what techniques it uses to evade detection. Another example might be analyzing a trojan horse to determine how it is delivered and what actions it takes once it has been installed on a system.



Steganography

Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, or other transmission within another file, message, or transmission. It is used to hide the presence of a hidden message so as to avoid detection or scrutiny.

One of the most common examples of steganography is when someone hides a message or file within an image file. For example, the sender may hide text in an image by changing the color of certain pixels of the image to a specific set of values not visible to the naked eye.

Another commonly used steganographic technique is to embed hidden messages within audio, video, or multimedia files. The sender will employ a specific algorithm to embed the message within the data of the file and make it undetectable once the file is sent. 

Finally, the use of white space in communication is also considered a form steganography. This involves the sender leaving gaps between words or letters. This allows the sender to disguise a secret message within the text by leaving gaps that only the recipient will be aware of. 

Steganography is becoming increasingly popular among cyber criminals and terrorists as it helps them conceal sensitive data and spread their message across the internet without detection.


Surface/Deep/Dark Web

The surface web, deep web, and dark web are three different layers of the internet, each with its own unique characteristics and accessibility.

The surface web is the portion of the internet that is easily accessible to anyone with an internet connection. It consists of websites that can be found through search engines like Google, and it is the part of the internet that most people use on a daily basis. Examples of surface web content include social media platforms, news websites, and online shopping sites.

The deep web is a layer of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and is not easily accessible to the general public. It consists of websites and databases that are not meant to be publicly available, such as government databases, internal company systems, and password-protected websites. Accessing the deep web requires specific software or authorization, and it is often used for legitimate purposes, such as conducting research or accessing private data.

The dark web is a part of the internet that is accessible only through specialized software, such as the Tor network. It is known for its anonymity and is often used for illegal activities, such as the sale of illegal goods and services, human trafficking, and the sharing of sensitive information. The dark web is not indexed by search engines and is not easily accessible to the general public.

In summary, the surface web is the part of the internet that is easily accessible and widely used, the deep web is a layer of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and requires special access, and the dark web is a part of the internet that is only accessible through specialized software and is often used for illegal activities.




loader image