Skip to main content
Completion requirements

Definitions and Descriptions.


Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  (Next)
  ALL

A

Anonymity

Anonymity is the state of being unknown or unrecognized, particularly in relation to one's identity or location. It is often associated with privacy and the protection of personal information.

There are various ways in which anonymity can be achieved, both online and offline. Some examples include:

  1. Using a pseudonym: A pseudonym is a name that is different from one's legal name. By using a pseudonym, individuals can protect their identity and keep their personal information private. For example, an author may use a pseudonym to publish their work without revealing their real name.

  2. Using a virtual private network (VPN): A VPN is a service that encrypts internet traffic and routes it through a remote server, allowing users to access the internet anonymously. This can be useful for individuals who want to protect their online activity from being monitored or tracked.

  3. Using the Tor network: The Tor network is a system designed to allow anonymous communication. It routes traffic through a series of randomly-selected servers, known as "relays", in order to obscure the identity and location of the user. This can be useful for individuals who want to access content or communicate anonymously.

  4. Wearing a mask or disguise: In some cases, anonymity may be achieved by physically concealing one's identity. For example, protestors may wear masks or disguises in order to protect themselves from retribution or identification.

Overall, anonymity is an important aspect of privacy and can be useful for individuals who wish to protect their personal information or exercise their right to free expression without fear of retribution. However, it is important to note that anonymity can also be used for illegal or malicious purposes, and should be used with caution.



APT

Advanced persistent threats (APTs) are a type of cyber attack featuring sophisticated malicious actors that target victims for a long period of time, compromising their system and confidential information. Such attackers usually initiate their attack with a phishing email, initial contact, or social engineering, and then use the access that they gain to continuously probe systems and networks for more access. Once a cybercriminal has access to a system, they may remain for months or even years, siphoning data and compromising other networks, applications, and accounts.

Examples of Advanced Persistent Threats:

  1. Stuxnet: Stuxnet is a computer worm that was initially used in 2010 to target Iran's nuclear weapons program. It gathered information, damaged centrifuges, and spread itself. It was thought to be an attack by a state actor against Iran.
  2. Duqu: Duqu is a computer virus developed by a nation state actor in 2011. It's similar to Stuxnet and it was used to surreptitiously gather information with the goal of infiltrating networks and sabotage their operations.
  3. DarkHotel: DarkHotel is a malware campaign that targeted hotel networks in Asia, Europe and North America in 2014. The attackers broke into hotel Wi-Fi networks and used the connections to infiltrate networks of their guests, who were high profile corporate executives. They stole confidential information from their victims and also installed malicious software on victims' computers.
  4. MiniDuke: MiniDuke is a malicious program from 2013 that is believed to have originated from a state-sponsored group. Its goal is to infiltrate into the target organizations and steal confidential information through a series of malicious tactics.
  5. APT28: APT28 is an advanced persistent threat group that is believed to be sponsored by a nation state. It uses tactics such as spear phishing, malicious website infiltration and password harvesting to target government and commercial organizations.
  6. OGNL: OGNL, or Operation GeNIus Network Leverage, is a malware-focused campaign believed to have been conducted by a nation state actor. It is used to break into networks and steal confidential information, such as credit card numbers, financial records, and social security numbers.

B

Black Market

One of the most well-known examples of illegal activity on the dark web is the existence of black markets. Black markets are online platforms where illegal goods and services can be bought and sold, often using cryptocurrency for anonymity.

One of the most famous black markets on the dark web was the Silk Road, which was launched in 2011 and shut down by the FBI in 2013. The Silk Road was a platform for the sale of illegal drugs, as well as other illicit items such as stolen credit card numbers and fake documents. The website was accessed through the Tor network and transactions were made using Bitcoin to maintain anonymity.

The Silk Road gained notoriety due to its size and the variety of illegal items available for purchase. It was estimated to have had over 100,000 users and millions of dollars in annual sales. The operator of the Silk Road, Ross Ulbricht, was eventually arrested and sentenced to life in prison for his role in the website.

While the Silk Road has been shut down, other black markets continue to operate on the dark web. These include the Evolution market, which was shut down in 2015, and the AlphaBay market, which was shut down in 2017. These markets offer a wide range of illegal goods and services, including drugs, weapons, and stolen personal information.

The existence of black markets on the dark web highlights the potential for illegal activity on this hidden part of the internet. While the dark web can be used for legitimate purposes, it is important for law enforcement agencies to monitor and shut down illegal operations such as black markets in order to maintain the rule of law.



Blue Team

A blue team is a group of professionals responsible for network defense within an organization. They use various security measures to prevent, detect, and respond to intrusions, malicious activities, and other cyberthreats. The blue team monitors network traffic to detect threats, implements protective measures such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, and performs vulnerability scans to detect weaknesses. They also maintain a system of active logs and records that can be used for investigation and forensics when an attack is detected. The blue team also educates users on best security practices and trains staff on security processes and technologies. The goal of the blue team is to keep the network and IT infrastructure safe from attack and compromise, constantly monitor the system for threats, and respond quickly and appropriately if an attack is detected.


Booting Linux

The Linux boot process refers to the sequence of events that occur when a Linux system is started up. There are several steps involved in this process, including the loading of the bootloader, the kernel, and the initial ramdisk.

One common bootloader used in Linux systems is GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader). GRUB is responsible for loading the Linux kernel and initial ramdisk, as well as providing a menu of boot options for the user to choose from.

When a Linux system is powered on, the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) or UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) system performs a series of checks and initializes the hardware. The BIOS or UEFI system then looks for a bootable device, such as a hard drive or USB drive, and transfers control to the bootloader on that device.

Once the bootloader is loaded, it displays a menu of boot options to the user. This menu can include options such as "normal boot,""recovery mode," or "safe mode." The user can select an option using their keyboard or the default option will be selected after a certain amount of time has passed.

Once the user has selected an option, the bootloader loads the Linux kernel and initial ramdisk into memory. The kernel is responsible for starting the operating system and initializing the hardware. The initial ramdisk is a small file system that contains necessary files and drivers needed to boot the system.

After the kernel and initial ramdisk are loaded, the boot process is handed over to the init system, which is responsible for starting other processes and services necessary for the system to function.

In summary, the Linux boot process involves the loading of the BIOS or UEFI system, the bootloader, the kernel, and the initial ramdisk, and the initialization of the init system. GRUB2 is a commonly used bootloader in Linux systems, and can provide a menu of boot options for the user to choose from.



Booting Mac

The Mac boot process is the sequence of events that occurs when a Mac computer is turned on or restarted. The process involves the loading and initialization of the operating system, as well as the loading of any necessary drivers and services.

The first step in the Mac boot process is the power-on self-test (POST). This is a diagnostic procedure that checks the basic functionality of the computer's hardware, such as the processor, memory, and disk drives. If any issues are detected during the POST, the computer may display an error message or be unable to boot.

Next, the Mac's firmware, which is the software that controls the hardware, begins to load. The firmware checks the bootable devices, such as the hard drive or USB drive, to determine which one to boot from. If the firmware cannot find a bootable device, it may display a "no bootable device" error message.

Once the bootable device is found, the firmware loads the bootloader, which is a small program that loads the operating system. On a Mac, the bootloader is called "boot.efi" and is located on the hard drive or USB drive.

The bootloader loads the operating system kernel, which is the central part of the operating system that controls the hardware and communicates with the rest of the operating system. The kernel then loads the rest of the operating system and any necessary drivers or services.

Once the operating system is fully loaded, the Mac is ready for use.

In addition to the normal boot process, Macs also have a feature called target mode, which allows the computer to be used as an external hard drive for another computer. To enter target mode, the user must restart the Mac and hold down the "T" key while the boot process is occurring. This will cause the Mac to boot into target mode, which allows the computer to be accessed as an external hard drive by another computer. Target mode is often used for transferring files between the two systems or for performing a clean install of the operating system.

Overall, the Mac boot process involves the loading and initialization of the operating system and necessary drivers and services, and may include the use of target mode to access the computer as an external hard drive.



Booting Windows

The Windows boot process is the series of steps that occur when a computer is powered on and begins to load the operating system. The boot process involves the interaction between hardware components, such as the motherboard and processor, and software components, such as the BIOS or UEFI and the operating system.

There are two main types of BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) that can be used in the Windows boot process: legacy BIOS and UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). Legacy BIOS is the traditional BIOS system that has been used in computers for many years. UEFI is a newer system that replaces the legacy BIOS and provides additional features such as support for larger hard drives and faster boot times.

The Windows boot process with BIOS typically follows the following steps:

  1. Power on: When the computer is powered on, the BIOS begins to load.

  2. POST (Power On Self Test): The BIOS performs a series of checks to ensure that the hardware components are functioning properly.

  3. Boot sequence: The BIOS looks for bootable devices, such as a hard drive or USB drive, and selects the first one in the boot order.

  4. MBR (Master Boot Record): The BIOS loads the MBR, which is a small piece of code at the beginning of the bootable device. The MBR contains a bootloader, which is a program that loads the operating system.

  5. Operating system: The bootloader loads the operating system and hands control over to it.

The Windows boot process with UEFI follows a similar sequence, but with some additional steps. UEFI has a built-in boot manager that allows users to select the boot device and provides additional options, such as booting into the BIOS or booting from a USB drive. The UEFI boot process also includes a secure boot feature, which verifies that the operating system has not been tampered with before loading it.

Overall, the Windows boot process involves the interaction between hardware and software components in order to load the operating system and begin the boot process. The type of BIOS, either legacy BIOS or UEFI, can affect the specific steps in the boot process.



C

Chain of Custody

A chain of custody refers to the documentation and tracking of evidence in a criminal investigation or legal case. It is a record of the handling and movement of evidence from the time it is collected until it is presented in court.

The chain of custody is important because it helps to establish the authenticity and integrity of the evidence. It ensures that the evidence has not been tampered with or contaminated and that it can be accurately linked to the crime or legal matter in question.

Examples of evidence that may require a chain of custody include physical items like fingerprints, DNA samples, drugs, weapons, or documents. It is also necessary for digital evidence like emails, texts, or social media posts.

To maintain a chain of custody, the following steps must be followed:

  1. Evidence is collected by a trained and authorized individual, such as a police officer or forensic investigator.
  2. The evidence is properly packaged and labeled, including information about who collected it, where and when it was collected, and what it is.
  3. The evidence is transferred to a secure location, such as a police station or laboratory, where it is stored in a controlled environment to prevent tampering or contamination.
  4. The evidence is examined and analyzed by qualified professionals using established protocols and procedures.
  5. The results of the examination are documented and reported in a detailed and accurate manner.
  6. The evidence is securely transported to court when it is needed as part of a legal case.

Throughout the process, the chain of custody is carefully documented and tracked, including information about who handled the evidence, where it was stored, and when it was moved. This helps to ensure that the evidence is reliable and can be used in court to support a criminal conviction or legal ruling.

It is important to maintain a thorough and accurate chain of custody in order to establish the authenticity and reliability of the evidence. Any breaks in the chain of custody, such as evidence being left unsecured or handled by unauthorized personnel, can compromise the integrity of the evidence and potentially impact the outcome of a case.

A chain of custody is a document that outlines the handling and control of physical or digital evidence in a forensic investigation. It is used to maintain the integrity of the evidence and to ensure that it is admissible in court.

In the field of digital forensics and incident response (DFIR), a chain of custody is used to track the handling of digital evidence from the time it is collected until it is presented in court. The chain of custody should include information about who collected the evidence, when it was collected, how it was collected, and where it has been stored.

For example, if a forensic analyst collects a suspect's computer as evidence, the chain of custody would include the following information:

  • The date and time the computer was collected
  • The name of the forensic analyst who collected the computer
  • The location where the computer was collected
  • A description of the computer and any identifying information, such as the serial number
  • The steps taken to secure and transport the computer, including any precautions taken to prevent contamination of the evidence
  • The name of the person who received the computer at the forensic laboratory

It is important to maintain a thorough and accurate chain of custody in order to ensure the integrity of the evidence and to establish that it has not been tampered with or altered in any way.

In addition to maintaining a chain of custody, forensic analysts should also follow standard operating procedures (SOPs) in order to ensure that the evidence is handled properly and that the results of the forensic analysis are reliable. SOPs outline the steps that should be taken to collect, preserve, and analyze digital evidence in a consistent and repeatable manner.

Overall, a chain of custody and adherence to SOPs are important for ensuring the integrity and admissibility of digital evidence in a forensic investigation.





Competitive Intelligence

Competitive intelligence refers to the collection and analysis of information about competitors, markets, and industry trends in order to inform strategic decision-making and gain a competitive advantage. It can be used by businesses, organizations, and individuals to gather information about their competitors and make informed decisions about their own strategies and actions.

Here are some examples of competitive intelligence:

  1. Market research: This involves gathering and analyzing data about the market and industry, such as sales figures, customer demographics, and trends. This can help businesses understand their competition and identify opportunities for growth or expansion.

  2. Competitive analysis: This involves studying the strategies, products, and services of competitors in order to understand their strengths and weaknesses, and identify opportunities for differentiation or improvement.

  3. SWOT analysis: This is a tool used to assess the internal and external factors that can impact an organization, including its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This can help businesses identify their competitive advantage and identify areas for improvement.

  4. Benchmarking: This involves comparing the performance of a company or organization to that of its competitors, in order to identify areas of strength and weakness and identify areas for improvement.

Overall, competitive intelligence helps businesses and organizations gather and analyze data about their competitors in order to inform strategic decision-making and gain a competitive advantage



Covert Channel

A covert channel is a type of communication method which allows for the transfer of data by exploiting resources that are commonly available on a computer system. Covert channels are types of communication that are invisible to the eyes of the system administrators or other authorized users. Covert channels are within a computer or network system, but are not legitimate or sanctioned forms of communication. They may be used to transfer data in a clandestine fashion.

Examples of covert channels include:

  • Embedding data in the headers of packets - The covert data is embedded in the headers of normal packets and sent over a protocol related to the normal activities of the computer system in question.
  • Data piggybacked on applications - Malicious applications are piggybacked with legitimate applications used on the computer system, sending confidential data.
  • Time-based channel - The timing of certain actions or transmissions is used to encode data.
  • Covert storage channel - Data is stored within a computer system on disk or in memory and is hidden from the system's administrators.
  • Data diddling - This involves manipulating data to contain malicious code or messages.
  • Steganography - This is a process of hiding messages within other types of media such as images and audio files.

Covert channels are commonly used for malicious purposes, such as the transmission of sensitive data or the execution of malicious code on a computer system. They can also be used for legitimate purposes, however, such as creating an encrypted communication channel.


Crime as a Service

Crime as a service (CaaS) is a term used to describe the practice of selling illegal or malicious products or services online. These products and services can include things such as malware, stolen personal information, and tools for committing cybercrimes.

One example of CaaS is the sale of malware-as-a-service (Maas). Maas refers to the sale of malware or tools for creating malware, often with the added convenience of technical support and updates. This allows individuals or organizations to purchase and use malware without having the technical knowledge or resources to create it themselves.

Another example of CaaS is the sale of stolen personal information, such as credit card numbers or login credentials. This information can be used for identity theft or other fraudulent activities.

CaaS can also include the sale of tools or services for committing cybercrimes, such as distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks or phishing campaigns. These tools can be used to disrupt or compromise websites or steal sensitive information from individuals or organizations.

Overall, CaaS is a growing concern for law enforcement agencies, as it allows individuals or organizations to access and use illegal or malicious products and services without having to have the necessary knowledge or resources. It is important for individuals and organizations to be aware of the potential risks of CaaS and take steps to protect themselves from these types of threats.


Keywords:
- Crime-as-a-Service (CaaS)
- Malware-as-a-Service (MaaS)
- Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS)


Cross Contamination

Cross contamination of evidence refers to the transfer of physical evidence from one source to another, potentially contaminating or altering the integrity of the original evidence. This can occur through a variety of means, including handling, storage, or transport of the evidence.

Examples of cross contamination of evidence may include:

  1. Handling evidence without proper protective gear or technique: For example, an investigator may handle a piece of evidence without wearing gloves, potentially transferring their own DNA or other contaminants onto the evidence.

  2. Storing evidence improperly: If evidence is not properly sealed or stored, it may come into contact with other substances or materials, potentially contaminating it.

  3. Transporting evidence without proper precautions: During transport, evidence may come into contact with other objects or substances, potentially altering or contaminating it.

  4. Using contaminated tools or equipment: If an investigator uses a tool or equipment that has previously come into contact with other evidence, it may transfer contaminants to the current evidence being analyzed.

It is important to prevent cross contamination of evidence in order to maintain the integrity and reliability of the evidence being used in a case. This can be achieved through proper handling, storage, and transport of evidence, as well as using clean tools and equipment.

Cross contamination of digital evidence refers to the unintentional introduction of external data or contamination of the original data during the process of collecting, handling, and analyzing digital evidence. This can occur when different devices or storage media are used to handle or store the evidence, or when the original data is modified or altered in any way.

One example of cross contamination of digital evidence is when a forensic investigator uses the same device to collect evidence from multiple sources. If the device is not properly sanitized between uses, the data from one source could be mixed with data from another source, making it difficult to accurately determine the origin of the data.

Another example of cross contamination of digital evidence is when an investigator copies data from a device to a storage media, such as a USB drive or hard drive, without properly sanitizing the storage media first. If the storage media contains data from previous cases, it could mix with the new data and contaminate the original evidence.

Cross contamination of digital evidence can also occur when an investigator opens or accesses a file or device without taking proper precautions, such as making a copy of the original data or using a forensic tool to preserve the data. This can result in the original data being modified or altered, which could affect the authenticity and integrity of the evidence.

In summary, cross contamination of digital evidence is a significant concern in forensic investigations because it can compromise the reliability and accuracy of the evidence, potentially leading to false conclusions or incorrect results. It is important for forensic investigators to take proper precautions to prevent cross contamination, such as using proper forensic tools and techniques, sanitizing devices and storage media, and following established protocols and procedures.



Crown Jewel Analysis

Threat hunting crown jewel analysis is a method used by security professionals to identify and prioritize the most valuable and vulnerable assets within an organization. This analysis helps security teams understand which assets are most critical to the organization and therefore require the most protection, and which assets are most likely to be targeted by adversaries.

To conduct crown jewel analysis, security professionals will typically gather information about the organization's assets, including their value to the organization, their level of vulnerability, and the potential impact of a compromise. They will then rank these assets based on these factors, with the most valuable and vulnerable assets being identified as the "crown jewels" of the organization.

For example, consider a healthcare organization that stores sensitive patient data. The organization's crown jewels might include their electronic health record system, which contains all of the patient data, and their server infrastructure, which stores and processes the data. These assets are likely to be the most valuable and vulnerable to an adversary, and therefore require the most protection.

Once the crown jewels have been identified, security professionals can focus their threat hunting efforts on protecting these assets, looking for indicators of compromise and taking steps to prevent attacks. This may include implementing additional security measures, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems, or implementing robust access control policies. By prioritizing the protection of the organization's most valuable assets, security teams can better defend against threats and reduce the risk of a compromise.



Cryptocurrency Investigation

Investigating Cryptocurrency Transactions

Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, have gained popularity in recent years as a decentralized and anonymous way to transact online. While they offer many benefits, they also present unique challenges for law enforcement and other organizations tasked with investigating suspicious activity.

One of the main challenges of investigating cryptocurrency transactions is the anonymity of the transactions. Cryptocurrencies are designed to be decentralized and not controlled by any central authority, which means there is no central ledger or record of transactions. Instead, transactions are recorded on a decentralized ledger called the blockchain, which is maintained by a network of computers around the world.

While this anonymity can make it difficult to track the movements of individual transactions, there are still several ways to investigate cryptocurrency transactions. One method is to follow the money. Cryptocurrencies can be traced through the blockchain by following the path of the coins from one address to another. This can help investigators identify the source and destination of a transaction, as well as any intermediaries involved.

Another way to investigate cryptocurrency transactions is to look for patterns or anomalies in the transaction data. For example, an investigator might look for large or unusual transactions, or transactions that involve multiple addresses or entities. These could be indicators of illicit activity, such as money laundering or fraud.

Investigators can also use other tools and techniques to help trace cryptocurrency transactions. For example, they might use forensic tools to examine the blockchain and identify specific transactions or addresses. They might also use social media and other online sources to gather information about the individuals or entities involved in the transactions.

Finally, investigators can work with exchanges and other service providers that handle cryptocurrency transactions. Many exchanges and service providers are required to follow anti-money laundering (AML) and know your customer (KYC) regulations, which means they may have additional information about the parties involved in a transaction.

In conclusion, investigating cryptocurrency transactions can be a challenging task due to the anonymity of the transactions. However, by following the money, looking for patterns and anomalies, and using forensic tools and other sources of information, investigators can still effectively trace and identify suspicious activity.



CSAM

CSAM stands for child sexual abuse material. It refers to any type of sexually explicit content that involves minors (individuals under the age of 18). This can include photographs, videos, and other forms of media that depict sexual acts or sexual abuse of children.

CSAM is a serious and illegal offense in many countries, as it involves the exploitation and abuse of vulnerable individuals. It is often associated with other crimes, such as human trafficking and exploitation, and is often linked to organized crime networks.

Here are some examples of CSAM:

  1. Child pornography: This refers to any sexually explicit images or videos that depict children in a sexual manner. This includes photographs, videos, and other forms of media that show children engaging in sexual activity or being sexually exploited.

  2. Online sexual grooming: This refers to the process of manipulating a child or young person into sexual activity, often through online communication or social media. This can involve sending sexually explicit messages, sharing inappropriate images or videos, or attempting to arrange in-person meetings for sexual purposes.

  3. Sex tourism: This refers to individuals traveling to other countries for the purpose of engaging in sexual activity with minors. This can include individuals who engage in sexual exploitation or abuse of children while traveling abroad.

Overall, CSAM is a serious and illegal offense that involves the sexual exploitation and abuse of minors. It is important for individuals to be aware of the signs and risks of CSAM, and to report any suspected instances to the appropriate authorities



Cyber Kill Chain

The cyber kill chain is a cybersecurity concept developed by Lockheed Martin to describe the stages or steps of a cyber attack. It is used to increase awareness of the common tactics, techniques, and procedures used in cyber attacks. 

The cyber kill chain acknowledges that most attacks require multiple stages to complete. By understanding the stages of an attack, organizations can more effectively defend against them by instituting security measures to prevent attacks from occurring, or detecting and preventing breaches when they do happen. 

The cyber kill chain is composed of seven steps or stages, including reconnaissance, weaponization, delivery, exploitation, installation, command & control, and actions on objectives.

1. Reconnaissance: The first step of the kill chain is reconnaissance. This is when the attacker gathers information about the target such as IP addresses, usernames and passwords, open services and ports, or vulnerable software.

2. Weaponization: The second step of the kill chain is weaponization. This is when the attacker takes the information collected in the reconnaissance phase and uses it to craft malicious code, malware, or other attack vectors.

3. Delivery: The third step of the kill chain is delivery. This is when the attacker uses the malicious code, malware, or other attack vectors to deliver the attack payload to the target. Examples of delivery methods are email attachments, malicious links, and USB drives. 

4. Exploitation: The fourth step of the kill chain is exploitation. This is when the attacker takes advantage of weaknesses in the target's security measures or vulnerability in the system and executes the attack, allowing the attacker to gain access to the system. 

5. Installation: The fifth step of the kill chain is installation. This is when the attacker installs malware or backdoors on the target system, allowing the attacker to gain access to the system at a later time. 

6. Command & Control: The sixth step of the kill chain is command & control. This is when the attacker uses the access gained from exploiting the system and sends commands from an external location to the malware or backdoors installed on the system. This allows the attacker to remotely access the system and control it. 

7. Actions on Objectives: The seventh and final step of the kill chain is actions on objectives. This is when the attacker takes advantage of the access gained in the previous steps to carry out the intended attack, such as stealing data or encryption of systems. 

The cyber kill chain is a useful tool for understanding cyber threats and the steps attackers take to mount an attack. Organizations can use the kill chain as an effective way to defend against cyber threats by monitoring and preventing each step in the attack. 

Sources: 

1. https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/capabilities/cyber/cyber-kill-chain.html 

2. https://www.disruptivesecurity.com/cyber-kill-chain/ 

3. https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/cyber-kill-chain.html


Cyber Terrorism

Cyber terrorism refers to the use of digital technology and the internet to carry out acts of terrorism, either through cyber attacks or the dissemination of propaganda or other forms of online radicalization. It is a growing threat that poses serious risks to governments, businesses, and individuals around the world.

Here are some examples of cyber terrorism:

  1. Cyber attacks on government or critical infrastructure: This can include hacking into government or military systems to steal sensitive information or disrupt critical services, such as power plants or transportation systems.

  2. Cyber propaganda: This refers to the use of social media and other online platforms to spread extremist ideologies and recruit individuals to carry out terrorist attacks.

  3. Cyber extortion: This involves threatening to release sensitive information or disrupt services unless a ransom is paid.

  4. Dissemination of false information: This can include spreading false or misleading information online in order to create chaos or panic.

Overall, cyber terrorism represents a significant threat to global security and stability, and it is an area of increasing concern for governments and law enforcement agencies around the world



Cyber Warfare

Cyber warfare refers to the use of digital technologies and tactics to attack and defend against various types of cyber threats. This can include activities such as hacking, malware attacks, phishing scams, and other types of online espionage or sabotage. Cyber warfare can be carried out by individuals, organizations, or even governments, and can be used to target individuals, businesses, or critical infrastructure.

Here are some examples of cyber warfare:

  1. State-sponsored hacking: Governments may use cyber warfare as a means of gathering intelligence, disrupting the operations of other countries, or spreading propaganda. For example, in 2018, the US government indicted several Russian individuals and organizations for hacking the email accounts of US officials and spreading disinformation during the 2016 presidential election.

  2. Corporate espionage: Companies may engage in cyber warfare in order to gain an advantage over their competitors. This can include hacking into a competitor's systems to steal trade secrets or intellectual property, or launching a DDoS attack to disrupt their operations.

  3. Malware attacks: Malware, or malicious software, can be used to infect a computer or network with viruses or other types of malware in order to gain access or disrupt operations. For example, in 2017, the WannaCry ransomware attack affected over 200,000 computers in 150 countries, encrypting users' data and demanding payment for its release.

  4. Phishing scams: Cyber criminals may use phishing scams to trick individuals into giving away sensitive information, such as passwords or credit card numbers. These scams often take the form of fake emails or websites that appear legitimate, but are actually designed to steal personal information.

Overall, cyber warfare can take many forms and can have serious consequences, including the theft of sensitive information, the disruption of critical infrastructure, and even the potential for physical harm.



Cybercrime

A cybercrime is a criminal act that involves the use of the internet or other forms of digital communication. Cybercrimes can take many forms, including:

  1. Fraud: This includes scams, phishing attacks, and other forms of deception that are designed to steal personal information or money from individuals or businesses. For example, a fraudster may send an email claiming to be from a bank and asking the recipient to enter their login credentials, in order to gain access to their account.

  2. Hacking: This includes the unauthorized access or tampering with computer systems, networks, or devices. Hackers may use various techniques, such as exploiting vulnerabilities or using malware, to gain access to systems or steal sensitive information.

  3. Intellectual property theft: This includes the unauthorized use or distribution of copyrighted material, such as music, movies, or software. This type of cybercrime is often facilitated through the use of file-sharing websites or peer-to-peer networks.

  4. Identity theft: This involves the unauthorized use of an individual's personal information, such as their name, address, or credit card details, for fraudulent purposes. Identity thieves may use this information to open bank accounts, apply for credit cards, or make purchases in the victim's name.

  5. Terrorism: This includes the use of the internet or other digital communication tools to promote or facilitate terrorist activities. This can include the use of social media to spread propaganda or the use of encrypted messaging apps to communicate with other members of a terrorist group.

Overall, cybercrimes pose a significant threat to individuals, businesses, and society as a whole, as they can result in financial loss, damage to reputations, and the compromise of sensitive information. It is important for individuals and organizations to be aware of these threats and take steps to protect themselves.



Cyberstalking

Cyberstalking is the use of the internet or other electronic means to harass, threaten, or otherwise intimidate an individual. It can take a variety of forms, including the sending of threatening or harassing messages, the dissemination of personal information, and the creation of fake profiles or websites.

Cyberstalking can be particularly harmful as it allows the perpetrator to stalk their victim from a distance and often anonymously. It can have serious consequences for the victim, including emotional distress, damage to reputation, and even physical harm.

Some examples of cyberstalking include:

  1. Sending threatening or harassing messages: Cyberstalkers may send threatening or harassing messages to their victim through email, social media, or other messaging platforms. These messages may contain threats of violence, personal attacks, or other harassing content.

  2. Disseminating personal information: Cyberstalkers may gather and disseminate personal information about their victim, such as their home address, phone number, or workplace, in an attempt to intimidate or harass them.

  3. Creating fake profiles or websites: Cyberstalkers may create fake profiles or websites in order to spread false or damaging information about their victim, or to impersonate them in order to deceive others.

  4. Monitoring or tracking the victim's online activity: Cyberstalkers may use software or other methods to monitor or track the victim's online activity in order to gather information or intimidate them.

Cyberstalking is a serious crime and is illegal in many countries. It is important for individuals to be aware of the signs of cyberstalking and to take steps to protect themselves, such as changing their online privacy settings, using strong passwords, and being cautious about sharing personal information online. If you are the victim of cyberstalking, it is important to report the incident to the authorities and seek support from friends, family, or a professional counseling service.



D

Dark Web

The Dark Web, also known as the Dark Net, is a part of the internet that is not accessible through regular web browsers or search engines. It can also be a private or hidden network not going through the Internet.  It is a hidden network of websites and servers that can only be accessed using specialized software, such as the Tor browser.

The Dark Web is often associated with illegal activity, such as drug trafficking, arms dealing, and child pornography. However, it is also used by individuals and organizations for legitimate purposes, such as anonymous communication and the protection of sensitive information.

Here are some examples of what you might find on the Dark Web:

  1. Illegal marketplaces: The Dark Web is home to numerous illegal marketplaces, where people can buy and sell drugs, weapons, and other illegal goods and services.

  2. Hacking tools: There are numerous websites on the Dark Web that offer hacking tools and services, such as malware, ransomware, and phishing kits.

  3. Anonymous communication: The Dark Web is often used as a means of anonymous communication, with people using it to share sensitive information or to communicate with others without fear of being monitored or tracked.

  4. Whistleblowing platforms: Some websites on the Dark Web provide a platform for individuals to anonymously share information about corruption or other wrongdoing.

Overall, the Dark Web is a complex and largely unregulated part of the internet that is often associated with illegal activity, but is also used for legitimate purposes. It is important to note that accessing the Dark Web can be risky, as it is often difficult to verify the legitimacy or safety of the content and individuals you may encounter there.



DarkMarket

A DarkMarket is a form of underground marketplace that exists on the dark web, where users can purchase illicit goods and services and remain anonymous. Traders on dark markets typically use virtual currencies and other financial methods that make their transactions untraceable.  Also called a dark web black market.


Data written to HDDs

An analog hard disk drive (HDD) is a type of storage device that uses a spinning disk to store data. The data is written to the disk using a magnetic head, which reads and writes data to the surface of the disk.

There are three main methods of writing data to an analog HDD: longitudinal recording, perpendicular recording, and shingle recording.

  1. Longitudinal recording: In longitudinal recording, the magnetic head writes data to the disk in a series of parallel tracks, similar to the grooves on a vinyl record. The head moves radially across the disk, writing data to the tracks as the disk spins. This method was used in early HDDs, but has largely been replaced by newer methods.

  2. Perpendicular recording: In perpendicular recording, the magnetic head writes data to the disk by recording it vertically, or perpendicular, to the surface of the disk. This allows for higher data density and capacity, as more data can be stored in a smaller area. Perpendicular recording is the most common method used in modern HDDs.

  3. Shingle recording: In shingle recording, the magnetic head writes data to the disk in overlapping layers, similar to the way shingles overlap on a roof. This method allows for even higher data density and capacity, as more data can be stored in a smaller area. Shingle recording is a newer method that is not yet widely used in commercial HDDs.

Overall, the method of writing data to an analog HDD can have a significant impact on the capacity and performance of the device. Perpendicular recording and shingle recording allow for higher data density and capacity, but may also be more complex and require more advanced technology.



Data written to SSDs

Solid-state drives (SSDs) are a type of storage device that use non-volatile memory to store data. Unlike traditional hard drives, which use spinning disks to store data, SSDs do not have any moving parts and are therefore faster and more durable.

However, SSDs have some limitations compared to hard drives, particularly in terms of write endurance and wear leveling. In order to maximize the lifespan of an SSD and ensure that it performs optimally, it is important to understand how data is written to an SSD and how these limitations are addressed.

Write endurance refers to the number of times that data can be written to and erased from an SSD before it begins to degrade. SSDs have a finite number of write cycles, and if they are exceeded, the performance of the SSD can begin to degrade.

In order to address this issue, SSDs use a process called wear leveling, which evenly distributes writes across the entire drive in order to prevent any one area from being written to excessively. This helps to extend the lifespan of the SSD by ensuring that all areas of the drive are used evenly.

Another factor that affects the performance of an SSD is the type of non-volatile memory used to store data. SSDs use either single-level cell (SLC) or multi-level cell (MLC) memory, with SLC being faster and more durable but also more expensive.

SLC memory stores one bit of data per cell, while MLC memory stores two or more bits per cell. This allows MLC memory to store more data in a smaller space, but it also results in slower write speeds and a lower write endurance compared to SLC memory.

In conclusion, data is written to an SSD by storing it in non-volatile memory cells, which can be either SLC or MLC. In order to extend the lifespan of the SSD and ensure optimal performance, the write endurance of the drive is managed through wear leveling, which evenly distributes writes across the drive. The type of memory used in the SSD, SLC or MLC, can also impact the performance of the drive.



Debugger

A debugger is a software tool used to identify and fix errors or bugs in computer programs. It allows a developer to step through the execution of a program line by line, examining the values of variables and the behavior of the program at each step. This helps the developer to identify the root cause of an error and make necessary corrections.

Examples of debugger functions include:

  1. Setting breakpoints: This allows the developer to pause the execution of the program at a specific point, allowing them to inspect the state of the program at that point in time.

  2. Examining variables: A debugger allows the developer to view the values of variables in the program as it is executing, helping them to understand why an error is occurring.

  3. Stepping through code: A debugger allows the developer to execute the program one line at a time, allowing them to examine the behavior of the program in detail.

  4. Debugging runtime errors: A debugger can help the developer identify runtime errors, such as null pointer exceptions or divide-by-zero errors, and fix them.

  5. Debugging multi-threaded programs: A debugger can help the developer identify issues with concurrent threads, such as race conditions or deadlocks, and fix them.

Some common debugger tools include GDB, EDB, and Immunity DB.

A debugger allows developers to step through their code line by line, examining the values of variables and the flow of the program. This can be useful for finding vulnerabilities because it allows developers to see exactly what is happening at each step of the program, which can help identify potential problems or vulnerabilities.

For example, a debugger could be used to identify a SQL injection vulnerability in a web application. By stepping through the code, the developer could see exactly where and how user input is being passed to a database query, and identify any weaknesses in the input validation that could be exploited by an attacker.

Another example could be identifying a buffer overflow vulnerability in a C program. By stepping through the code, the developer could see where and how user input is being stored in memory, and identify any potential problems with how much data is being stored compared to the size of the buffer.

Overall, a debugger is a valuable tool for finding vulnerabilities because it allows developers to closely examine the behavior of their code and identify any potential weaknesses or security issues.



DFIR

Digital forensics and incident response (DFIR) is the process of identifying, preserving, analyzing, and presenting digital evidence in a way that is legally admissible. It is often used in the context of cybersecurity and cybercrime investigations, but it can also be applied in other areas, such as civil and criminal cases involving electronic evidence.

DFIR typically involves several steps:

  1. Identification: This involves identifying the incident, determining the scope of the impact, and identifying the systems and data that may be affected.

  2. Preservation: This involves preserving the evidence in a way that maintains its integrity and authenticity. This might involve making copies of data, capturing network traffic, or taking images of affected systems.

  3. Analysis: This involves analyzing the evidence to determine what happened and who was involved. This might involve examining logs, analyzing network traffic, or examining the contents of files and email messages.

  4. Presentation: This involves presenting the results of the investigation in a way that is understandable and legally admissible. This might involve preparing reports, creating diagrams or timeline, or giving testimony in court.

Here is an example of how DFIR might be used:

  • A company suspects that one of its employees has been stealing sensitive data and selling it to a competitor. The company's IT department performs an investigation and discovers that the employee has been accessing the data and transferring it to a personal email account. The IT department captures a copy of the data, examines the employee's email and computer logs, and prepares a report detailing the findings. The report is then presented to the company's legal team, who use it to build a case against the employee.

Another example:

  • A government agency receives a tip that a group of hackers has been targeting a specific organization. The agency launches an investigation and discovers that the hackers have been using a new strain of malware to gain access to the organization's systems. The agency captures a sample of the malware and analyzes it to understand how it works and how it was delivered. The agency then prepares a report detailing the findings and shares the report with the affected organization, as well as with other government agencies and law enforcement organizations to help prevent future attacks


Dissasembler

A disassembler is a program that translates machine code into assembly code. Assembly code is a low-level programming language that is specific to a particular computer architecture and is more easily understood by humans than machine code. A disassembler is often used for reverse engineering, debugging, and analyzing malware.

Here is an example of how a disassembler might translate a simple machine code program:

Machine code:
10011010 00011000 00010010 00000000 01011010 00011001 00010010 00000000 00010000 00000000 00000000 00000000

Assembly code:
mov ax, 12 mov bx, 18 nop

In a digital forensic investigation, a disassembler can be used to reverse engineer an executable file in order to understand how it works and potentially uncover any malicious behavior.

For example, if a forensic investigator is examining a suspicious software program that is suspected of being malware, they might use a disassembler to examine the underlying assembly code. This would be done in order to understand how the program functions and to look for any signs of malicious behavior, such as code that is designed to evade detection or steal sensitive data.

In addition to helping forensic investigators understand how a particular piece of software works, a disassembler can also be used to identify and analyze software vulnerabilities, recover lost or deleted code, and aid in the development of custom software tools.

Disassemblers are available both commercially and as open-source. Some popular examples include IDA Pro, Radare2, and Ghidra.


Dossier

A suspect dossier is a file or collection of information that is compiled in order to identify and potentially prosecute an individual or group for a suspected crime. It may include details about the suspect's personal information, past criminal history, associates, and any evidence that has been gathered in the investigation.

For example, a suspect dossier might be created in a murder investigation, with information about the victim and the possible motive for the crime, as well as any forensic evidence that has been collected. It could also be used in a fraud case, with details about the suspect's financial transactions and any documents or evidence of wrongdoing.

A suspect dossier may be created by law enforcement agencies, private investigators, or other organizations involved in the investigation. It is used as a reference tool to help identify and track the suspect and to build a case against them. It may be shared with other investigators or legal authorities in order to coordinate the investigation and prosecution.


Doxxing

Doxxing refers to the practice of intentionally releasing personal information about an individual online, often with the intent to harass or intimidate them. This information can include things like a person's full name, address, phone number, email address, social media profiles, and any other personal details that can be found online.

Doxxing is often motivated by a desire to seek revenge or to punish someone for something they have done or said. It can also be used as a tool for online harassment or cyberbullying.

Here are some examples of doxxing:

  1. A person who disagrees with another person's political views may doxx them by posting their personal information online and encouraging others to harass them.

  2. A group of individuals may doxx someone they perceive as being a "troll" or someone who engages in online behavior they find unacceptable.

  3. Someone may doxx someone they are in a personal or professional dispute with in order to try and damage their reputation.

  4. An individual may doxx someone they feel has wronged them in some way, as a form of revenge or punishment.

Doxxing can have serious consequences for the victim, including online harassment, stalking, and even physical harm. It is important to remember that it is never okay to intentionally release someone else's personal information online without their consent.



Dump1090

Dump1090 is a command-line utility that allows users to decode and display data from an aviation radar system called Mode S. Mode S is a type of radar system used by aviation authorities to track aircraft in real-time, and dump1090 can be used to display this data in a more user-friendly format.

To use dump1090, you will need to install it on your computer and then run the command-line utility with the appropriate flags and parameters. For example, you might run a command like "dump1090 -q" to display the aircraft data in a quiet mode, without any additional output.

There are many different ways to use dump1090, depending on your specific needs and goals. Some common uses for dump1090 include:

  1. Displaying real-time aircraft data: You can use dump1090 to view the location, altitude, and other details of aircraft in your area in real-time. This can be useful for aviation enthusiasts, pilots, or anyone else interested in tracking aircraft movements.

  2. Generating reports: You can use dump1090 to generate reports on aircraft activity over a certain period of time, such as a day, week, or month. This can be useful for aviation authorities or other organizations that need to track aircraft movements for regulatory or other purposes.

  3. Debugging aviation systems: If you work in the aviation industry, you may use dump1090 to help debug and troubleshoot issues with Mode S radar systems or other aviation technologies.

Overall, dump1090 is a powerful tool for decoding and displaying aviation radar data, and it can be used for a wide variety of purposes, from tracking aircraft movements to debugging aviation systems.



Dynamic Malware Analysis

Dynamic malware analysis is a technique used to analyze and understand the behavior of a malware sample by running it in a controlled environment and observing its actions. This technique is used to identify the malicious capabilities of a malware sample and to determine the best course of action to mitigate or remove the threat.

There are several ways to perform dynamic malware analysis, including:

  1. Sandboxing: This involves running the malware sample in a virtualized or isolated environment to prevent it from accessing or affecting the host system. The sandboxed environment allows the analyst to observe the malware's behavior and record its actions, such as file system or network activity.

  2. Debugging: This involves using a debugger tool to step through the malware's code and analyze its behavior. This can be useful for understanding how the malware functions and identifying any vulnerabilities or weaknesses in its code.

  3. Memory analysis: This involves analyzing the memory of the host system while the malware is running to identify any changes or modifications made by the malware. This can help the analyst understand the malware's behavior and identify any hidden or malicious functions.

Examples of dynamic malware analysis include:

  1. Running a malware sample in a sandboxed environment and observing its behavior, such as creating new files or accessing network resources.

  2. Using a debugger tool to step through the malware's code and analyze its behavior, such as identifying malicious functions or vulnerabilities.

  3. Analyzing the memory of the host system while the malware is running to identify any changes or modifications made by the malware, such as injecting malicious code into legitimate processes.



E

Economic Espionage

Economic espionage refers to the theft of trade secrets or other proprietary information for the purpose of providing economic benefit to a rival company or nation. This can involve a variety of activities, including hacking, corporate spying, or other forms of covert information gathering.

Here are some examples of economic espionage:

  1. A company hacks into the computer systems of a rival company in order to steal sensitive business information, such as financial records or trade secrets.

  2. A corporate insider provides proprietary information to a rival company in exchange for financial compensation.

  3. A foreign government engages in cyber espionage to gather information about the economic plans and strategies of a rival nation.

  4. A company hires a private investigator to covertly gather information about a rival company's business practices.

Overall, economic espionage can have significant negative impacts on the victim company, including financial loss, damage to reputation, and loss of competitive advantage. It is often considered a form of industrial espionage, and can be prosecuted as a crime in many countries



Evil Twin

A wireless evil twin attack is a type of cyberattack in which an attacker creates a fake wireless access point (WAP) that is designed to mimic a legitimate WAP in order to steal sensitive information from unsuspecting users. The fake WAP, also known as the "evil twin", is set up to look like a legitimate WAP, such as a public WiFi hotspot or a corporate network. When a user connects to the evil twin, the attacker can intercept and steal the user's sensitive information, such as login credentials and financial information.

There are several ways that an attacker can carry out a wireless evil twin attack:

  1. Spoofing the SSID (Service Set Identifier): The SSID is the name of a WAP that is broadcast to devices in order to identify the network. An attacker can create an evil twin WAP with the same SSID as a legitimate WAP in order to trick users into connecting to it.

  2. Using a stronger signal: An attacker can use a stronger signal than the legitimate WAP in order to make the evil twin more attractive to users. This can be particularly effective in crowded areas, where there may be multiple WAPs with overlapping coverage.

  3. Using a man-in-the-middle attack: An attacker can use a man-in-the-middle attack to intercept and alter the communication between a user and a legitimate WAP. The attacker can then redirect the user to the evil twin WAP, where they can steal the user's sensitive information.

Wireless evil twin attacks can be difficult to detect, as the fake WAP is designed to mimic a legitimate WAP. Users can protect themselves from these attacks by being cautious when connecting to unfamiliar WiFi networks, checking the spelling and capitalization of the SSID, and using a VPN to encrypt their internet traffic.

Overall, wireless evil twin attacks are a serious threat to users' privacy and security, and it is important for individuals to be aware of this type of attack and take steps to protect themselves.



EXIF

EXIF (Exchangeable Image File Format) data is metadata that is embedded in a photo file. It contains information about the device that captured the photo, such as the make and model of the camera or smartphone, and settings used by the device at the time the photo was taken, such as the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. EXIF data also includes the date and time the photo was taken, and sometimes the location where the photo was taken if the device's GPS was turned on.

Here are some examples of the types of information that might be included in EXIF data:

  • Date and time the photo was taken
  • Camera make and model
  • Aperture setting
  • Shutter speed
  • ISO speed
  • Focal length of the lens
  • Flash setting
  • White balance setting
  • GPS coordinates (if the device's GPS was turned on)

You can view the EXIF data of a photo by opening the photo in a photo editing software or using a free online EXIF viewer. Some social media platforms, like Facebook and Instagram, also allow you to view the EXIF data of a photo by clicking on the photo and selecting the "Info" or "Details" option.



F

File System

A file system is a system that organizes and stores files on a computer or storage device. It determines how files are named, stored, and retrieved. There are many different file systems, each with their own set of rules and features.

One example of a file system is NTFS, which is commonly used on Windows operating systems. NTFS allows for long file names, file compression, and support for large volumes of data.

Another example is FAT32, which is commonly used on USB drives and other portable devices. FAT32 has a smaller file size limit and does not support file compression, but it is compatible with a wider range of devices.

High level formatting is the process of formatting a storage device at the highest level, creating a new file system on the device. This process is typically done when a new device is being set up or when the existing file system is damaged or corrupt.

High level formatting involves several steps, including the creation of the file system structure, the allocation of space for files, and the creation of a boot sector.

High level formatting is a destructive process, as it erases all existing data on the device. It is important to make sure that any important data is backed up before performing a high level format.

Overall, a file system is a system that organizes and stores files on a computer or storage device, while high level formatting is the process of creating a new file system on a storage device. These concepts are important for managing and maintaining storage devices and ensuring the integrity of data



File Systems - APFS

Apple APFS, or Apple File System, is a proprietary file system developed by Apple Inc. for use on their devices. APFS was introduced in 2017 with the release of macOS High Sierra and is now used as the default file system for all Apple devices.

APFS has several benefits over the previous file system used by Apple, known as HFS+, including:

  1. Improved efficiency: APFS is optimized for solid-state drives (SSDs) and flash-based storage, which results in faster performance and improved efficiency.

  2. Enhanced security: APFS includes features such as strong encryption and the ability to create multiple "volumes" within a single physical storage device, which can improve security.

  3. Better handling of large files: APFS is designed to handle large files more efficiently, which can be beneficial for users working with media files or large datasets.

  4. Improved compatibility with iOS devices: APFS is used on both macOS and iOS devices, which improves compatibility and allows for seamless data transfer between devices.

  5. Support for Time Machine: APFS includes support for Time Machine, Apple's built-in backup software, which allows users to easily create and restore backups of their files.

Overall, APFS provides a number of benefits over the previous file system used by Apple, including improved performance and security, better handling of large files, and enhanced compatibility with iOS devices. 



File Systems - EXFAT

exFAT (Extended File Allocation Table) is a file system designed for use on flash drives, external hard drives, and other storage devices that need to be compatible with a variety of operating systems. exFAT was developed by Microsoft as a replacement for the FAT32 file system, which has a maximum file size of 4 GB.

exFAT supports a maximum file size of 16 TB, making it well-suited for storing large files such as high-definition video. It is also a good choice for devices that need to be used with multiple operating systems, as it is supported by Windows, macOS, Linux, and other systems.

One of the key advantages of exFAT is its simplicity, as it does not require a complex directory structure like other file systems. This makes it easier to use and less prone to corruption. However, it does not support file permissions or other advanced features, which can be a drawback in certain situations.

Examples of devices that might use exFAT include external hard drives, USB flash drives, and SD cards. It is often used for transferring large files between different devices and operating systems, or for storing media such as music, photos, and videos.

In summary, exFAT is a file system that is well-suited for storing large files and supporting multiple operating systems. It is simple to use and has a maximum file size of 16 TB, making it a good choice for storing and transferring large amounts of data.



File Systems - EXT

An ext file system, also known as the extended file system, is a type of file system used in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. There have been several versions of the ext file system, including ext, ext2, ext3, and ext4.

The ext file system is based on a structure known as the inode, which stores information about a file or directory such as its size, permissions, and location on the disk. Each file and directory on the file system has its own inode, and the inode table stores the inodes for all of the files and directories on the file system.

The ext file system also includes a feature known as the superblock, which is a special data structure that stores important information about the file system as a whole. This includes the size of the file system, the number of inodes and blocks, and the location of the inode and block bitmaps.

One of the main advantages of the ext file system is its ability to support large files and volumes. Ext4, the latest version of the ext file system, can support files up to 16 TB in size and volumes up to 1 exabyte in size. It also includes features such as journaling, which helps to recover from corruption or power failures, and support for extended attributes, which allows for the storage of metadata such as security labels and access controls.

The ext file system is widely used in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems, and is the default file system for many Linux distributions. It is known for its stability, performance, and compatibility with a wide range of hardware and software.

Overall, the ext file system is a reliable and widely-used file system that is well-suited for use in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. Its inode and superblock structures allow for the efficient storage and management of files and directories, and its support for large files and volumes makes it a flexible and versatile file system.



File Systems - FAT

FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32 are file systems used for storing and organizing data on storage devices such as hard drives and USB drives. These file systems are named based on the size of their allocation table, which is a data structure used to keep track of the location of files on the storage device.

FAT12 was the first file system developed by Microsoft, and was used on floppy disks and smaller storage devices. It has a 12-bit allocation table, which allows it to support up to 4096 clusters, or groups of sectors on the storage device. FAT12 is no longer commonly used, as it has a limited capacity and is not suitable for larger storage devices.

FAT16 is an improvement on FAT12, and was developed to support larger storage devices. It has a 16-bit allocation table, which allows it to support up to 65,536 clusters. FAT16 is still used on some older storage devices, but has been largely replaced by newer file systems.

FAT32 is a further improvement on FAT16, and was designed to support larger storage devices and improve performance. It has a 32-bit allocation table, which allows it to support up to 4,294,967,296 clusters. FAT32 is the most widely used file system, and is supported by a variety of operating systems.

There are several differences between these file systems, including their capacity, performance, and compatibility. FAT12 has the smallest capacity and is not suitable for larger storage devices, while FAT16 and FAT32 have larger capacities and are more widely used. FAT32 also has improved performance compared to FAT12 and FAT16, and is more compatible with a variety of operating systems.

Overall, FAT12, FAT16, and FAT32 are file systems that have been developed and improved over time to support larger storage devices and improve performance. While they are not as commonly used as newer file systems, they are still in use on some older storage devices.



File Systems - NTFS

The Windows NTFS (New Technology File System) is a proprietary file system developed by Microsoft for use on its Windows operating system. It is a widely-used file system that is known for its support for large files and robust security features.

The NTFS file system uses a hierarchical structure to organize and store files on a hard drive or other storage device. At the top of the hierarchy is the root directory, which contains subdirectories and files. Each file and directory is represented by a record in the Master File Table (MFT), which is a special system file that contains metadata about the files and directories on the file system.

The MFT contains a record for each file and directory on the file system, including the file's name, size, creation date, and location on the hard drive. It also contains pointers to the file's data, which is stored in clusters on the hard drive.

In addition to the MFT, the NTFS file system also includes a special system file called the $logfile. The $logfile is used to record changes to the file system, such as the creation or deletion of a file or directory. This allows the file system to recover from errors or corruption, and can also be used for forensic purposes to track changes to the file system.

One of the key features of the NTFS file system is its support for security features, such as file and folder permissions and encryption. These features allow users to control access to files and folders, and can help to protect sensitive data from unauthorized access.

Overall, the NTFS file system is a widely-used and robust file system that provides a range of features for organizing and storing files, as well as security features to protect data. The MFT and $logfile are important components of the NTFS file system, as they play a crucial role in the organization and management of files and the recovery of the file system.



Forensic imaging

Forensic imaging is the process of creating an exact copy of a computer's hard drive or other digital storage device for the purpose of examination and analysis. This process is used in criminal investigations, civil cases, and other legal proceedings where electronic evidence may be relevant.

There are several steps involved in forensic imaging. First, the computer or storage device to be imaged is connected to a forensic workstation, which is a specialized computer used for this purpose. The workstation is configured to create an exact copy of the hard drive or other storage device, including all data, file structures, and metadata (information about the data, such as creation and modification dates).

Next, the forensic workstation creates a hash value for the original hard drive, which is a unique numerical value that represents the data on the drive. The hash value is used to verify the integrity of the forensic image, ensuring that it is an exact copy of the original drive.

Once the forensic image is created, it can be analyzed using specialized software or tools. For example, a forensic investigator might use a tool to search the image for specific keywords or file types, or to identify deleted or hidden files. They may also use software to extract and analyze metadata, such as email headers or internet browsing history.

Examples of how forensic imaging might be used include:

  • A criminal investigation into a cybercrime, such as identity theft or fraud. The forensic image of the suspect's computer can be analyzed to identify evidence of their involvement in the crime.

  • A civil case involving the discovery of electronic evidence, such as emails or documents. The forensic image of the relevant computer can be analyzed to identify relevant evidence.

  • A child custody case in which electronic evidence, such as social media messages or text messages, may be relevant. The forensic image of the relevant devices can be analyzed to identify this evidence.

Linux tools, such as dd and dcfldd, are commonly used for forensic imaging due to their flexibility and ability to create bit-level copies of storage devices. These tools are free and open source, making them accessible to forensic analysts.

To create a forensic image using dd, the analyst would enter the following command:

dd if=/dev/sda of=image.dd bs=1M

This command will create a forensic image of the device /dev/sda and save it as a file called image.dd. The "bs" parameter specifies the block size, which determines the speed of the imaging process.

Dcfldd is another Linux tool that can be used for forensic imaging. It has additional features such as the ability to hash the image as it is being created, which can be useful for verifying the integrity of the image. To create a forensic image using dcfldd, the analyst would enter the following command:

dcfldd if=/dev/sda hash=md5,sha256 hashlog=hashes.txt of=image.dd

This command will create a forensic image of the device /dev/sda and save it as a file called image.dd. It will also create hashes of the image using the MD5 and SHA-256 algorithms, and save the hashes to a file called hashes.txt.

Once the forensic image has been created, it can be analyzed using a variety of forensic tools. These tools can be used to search for evidence such as deleted files, internet history, and system logs.

In conclusion, forensic imaging is an important step in the forensic process, and Linux tools such as dd and dcfldd are useful in creating reliable and verifiable forensic images. These tools allow forensic analysts to preserve the original evidence and conduct a thorough analysis of the contents of a storage device.



Forensic Imaging - Mac

In the case of a Mac, forensic imaging can be done using the target mode feature, which allows the Mac to be connected to another computer as a external drive. This allows the forensic analyst to create a forensic image of the Mac's hard drive using forensic imaging tools on the other computer.

One way to perform forensic imaging of a Mac in target mode using Linux is to use the dd tool. Dd is a command-line utility that allows the forensic analyst to create a bit-level copy of a storage device. To create a forensic image of a Mac in target mode using dd, the analyst would follow these steps:

  1. Connect the Mac to the forensic computer using a firewire or thunderbolt cable.

  2. Boot the Mac into target mode by holding down the "T" key during startup.

  3. On the forensic computer, open a terminal and enter the following command (assuming the new drive is sdc):

dd if=/dev/sdc of=image.dd bs=1M

This command will create a forensic image of the Mac's hard drive and save it as a file called image.dd. The "bs" parameter specifies the block size, which determines the speed of the imaging process.

Another tool that can be used for forensic imaging of a Mac in target mode is dcfldd. Dcfldd is similar to dd, but has additional features such as the ability to hash the image as it is being created, which can be useful for verifying the integrity of the image. To create a forensic image using dcfldd, the analyst would enter the following command:

dcfldd if=/dev/sdc hash=md5,sha256 hashlog=hashes.txt of=image.dd

This command will create a forensic image of the Mac's hard drive and save it as a file called image.dd. It will also create hashes of the image using the MD5 and SHA-256 algorithms, and save the hashes to a file called hashes.txt.

Once the forensic image has been created, it can be analyzed using a variety of forensic tools. These tools can be used to search for evidence such as deleted files, internet history, and system logs.

In conclusion, forensic imaging is an important step in the forensic process, and Linux tools such as dd and dcfldd are useful in creating reliable and verifiable forensic images of a Mac in target mode. These tools allow forensic analysts to preserve the original evidence and conduct a thorough analysis of the contents of a Mac's hard drive.



Forensic Imaging - Writeblocker

Imaging a drive connected to a write blocker using dcfldd is a process that allows a forensic analyst to create an exact copy, or forensic image, of the drive for the purpose of forensic analysis. This process is important in order to preserve the original evidence in its original state and prevent any changes from being made to the drive.

To image a drive connected to a write blocker using dcfldd, the analyst would follow the following steps:

  1. Connect the write blocker: The write blocker should be connected between the drive and the forensic analysis computer. This will prevent any changes from being made to the drive during the imaging process.

  2. Open a terminal: The analyst should open a terminal window on the forensic analysis computer.

  3. Identify the drive: The analyst should use the "lsblk" command to identify the device name of the drive. For example, the drive may be identified as "/dev/sdc".

  4. Create the forensic image: The analyst should enter the following command to create the forensic image:

dcfldd if=/dev/sdc hash=md5,sha256 hashlog=hashes.txt of=image.dd

This command will create a forensic image of the drive and save it as a file called "image.dd". It will also create hashes of the image using the MD5 and SHA-256 algorithms, and save the hashes to a file called "hashes.txt".

  1. Verify the image: The analyst can verify the integrity of the image by comparing the hashes of the original image with the hashes of the forensic image. If the hashes match, it is an indication that the forensic image is an exact copy of the original drive.

Overall, imaging a drive connected to a write blocker using dcfldd is a reliable and verifiable way to create a forensic image of a drive for forensic analysis. This process allows forensic analysts to preserve the original evidence and conduct a thorough analysis without the risk of contamination or alteration.

Guymager is a free and open source forensic imaging tool that is commonly used to create forensic images of storage devices. In order to image a drive that is connected to a write blocker using Guymager, the following steps can be followed:

  1. Connect the write blocker to the forensic analysis computer and the storage device to the write blocker.

  2. Open Guymager and select the "Acquire" tab.

  3. Select the write blocker device from the dropdown menu.

  4. Choose a destination for the forensic image, such as a local drive or network share.

  5. Select the "Start" button to begin the imaging process.

  6. Guymager will create a forensic image of the storage device and save it to the specified destination.

  7. Once the imaging process is complete, the forensic image can be analyzed using a variety of forensic tools.

It is important to note that the write blocker must be properly configured in order to ensure that no changes are made to the storage device during the imaging process. This is necessary in order to preserve the original evidence and maintain the integrity of the investigation.

Overall, using Guymager in conjunction with a write blocker is a reliable and efficient way to create forensic images of storage devices for forensic analysis.



Forensic Report

A forensic report is a written document that provides an in-depth analysis of evidence collected during a criminal investigation. It is typically prepared by a forensic expert or team of experts, who use specialized techniques and tools to examine and evaluate the evidence. The report is then presented to law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and the courts to help support or refute various theories about the crime or to assist in the prosecution of a suspect.

There are many different types of forensic reports, depending on the nature of the crime and the types of evidence involved. Some common examples of forensic reports include:

  1. Fingerprint analysis: This type of report includes detailed information about the unique characteristics of a person's fingerprints, including the ridges, loops, and whorls that make them unique.

  2. DNA analysis: This report analyzes the genetic material found on samples of bodily fluids or tissues, such as blood, saliva, or hair, to identify a suspect or victim.

  3. Ballistics analysis: This report examines the characteristics of bullets and firearms to determine the type of weapon used in a crime and whether it was fired from a particular gun.

  4. Digital forensic analysis: This report examines electronic devices, such as computers, phones, and tablets, to extract digital evidence that may be relevant to a criminal investigation.

  5. Toxicology analysis: This report analyzes samples of blood, urine, or other bodily fluids to determine the presence of drugs or other toxic substances in the body.

  6. Document analysis: This report analyzes handwriting, ink, paper, and other physical characteristics of documents to determine their authenticity or to identify the person who wrote them.

  7. Fire and explosion analysis: This report investigates the causes of fires and explosions, including the types of fuels and accelerants used and the patterns of damage caused.

A digital forensic report is a document that provides a detailed analysis and summary of the findings of a digital forensic investigation. It is typically created by a digital forensic investigator or a team of investigators and is used to document the steps taken during the investigation, the evidence collected, and the conclusions reached.

Digital forensic reports are often used in criminal cases, civil litigation, and other legal proceedings where electronic evidence may be relevant. They may also be used in internal investigations by organizations to determine the cause of a security breach or other cyber incident.

Examples of the types of information that may be included in a digital forensic report include:

  1. A summary of the investigation: This section provides an overview of the purpose of the investigation and the steps taken to gather and analyze evidence.

  2. Evidence collection: This section details the types of electronic devices and media that were examined and the methods used to collect and preserve the evidence.

  3. Analysis of evidence: This section describes the techniques and tools used to analyze the evidence and the findings of the analysis.

  4. Conclusions: This section summarizes the conclusions reached based on the evidence collected and analyzed.

  5. Recommendations: This section may provide recommendations for further action or steps to be taken to prevent similar incidents in the future.

Example: A digital forensic report may be created in the case of a cybercrime investigation. The report may detail the steps taken to identify the perpetrator, the evidence collected from their computer or other devices, and the conclusions reached based on that evidence. The report may also provide recommendations for improving the organization's cybersecurity measures to prevent similar incidents in the future.



G

GEOINT

Geoint, or geospatial intelligence, is the process of gathering, analyzing, and distributing information about the earth and its features. It involves using various technologies, such as satellite imagery and geographic information systems (GIS), to collect and analyze data about the earth's surface and its features.


Examples of geoint include mapping out the location of natural resources, analyzing land use patterns, tracking the movement of individuals or groups, and monitoring environmental changes. It can also be used in military operations to identify enemy positions, assess terrain, and plan strategies.


Geoint can be used in various industries, such as agriculture, urban planning, environmental protection, and transportation. For example, geoint can be used to map out the location of crops and analyze the impact of different farming practices on the land. In urban planning, geoint can be used to identify areas with high traffic congestion and develop strategies to improve transportation efficiency. In environmental protection, geoint can be used to monitor natural disasters and assess the impact of pollution on the land.


Overall, geoint is a powerful tool for gathering and analyzing data about the earth and its features, and can be used in a variety of industries to inform decision-making and improve operations.


GPT

A GPT, or GUID Partition Table, is a type of partitioning scheme used on a hard drive or other storage device. It is a more modern alternative to the older MBR (Master Boot Record) partitioning scheme, and allows for larger storage capacities and more partitions on a single device.

A GPT is made up of a series of partition entries, each of which contains information about a partition on the storage device. This information includes the partition's type, size, and location on the device.

The size of a GPT is determined by the number of partition entries it contains. A GPT can contain up to 128 partition entries, each of which is 16 bytes in size. This means that the maximum size of a GPT is 2,048 bytes (128 x 16).

In addition to the partition entries, a GPT also contains a primary and secondary header, which contain information about the GPT itself. The primary header contains a copy of the partition entries and is located at the beginning of the GPT, while the secondary header is a backup copy located at the end of the GPT.

One advantage of using a GPT is that it allows for larger storage capacities. While an MBR partition scheme is limited to 2 TB, a GPT can support devices up to 9.4 zettabytes in size. A GPT is also more resilient to corruption, as it has a backup copy of the partition entries in the secondary header.

In conclusion, a GPT is a type of partitioning scheme used on storage devices that allows for larger storage capacities and more partitions. Its size is determined by the number of partition entries it contains, and it also includes a primary and secondary header.



GSM

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications, which is a standard for digital cellular networks that is used globally. It is the most widely used mobile communications standard in the world, and is used by over 90% of mobile phone users.

GSM is a digital technology that uses time-division multiple access (TDMA) to allow multiple users to share the same frequency band. It uses a variety of signaling protocols and codecs to transmit voice and data over the air, and uses a system of cells and base stations to cover large geographic areas.

GSM is used for a variety of applications, including voice calls, text messaging, and data transfer. It is also used for machine-to-machine communication and Internet of Things (IoT) applications.

Some examples of GSM usage include:

  1. Mobile phone calls: GSM is used to transmit voice calls between mobile phones and the network, allowing users to make and receive calls anywhere within a GSM coverage area.

  2. Text messaging: GSM uses Short Message Service (SMS) to transmit text messages between mobile phones, allowing users to send and receive text messages regardless of location.

  3. Data transfer: GSM uses General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) to transmit data over the air, allowing users to access the internet and other data services on their mobile devices.

  4. Machine-to-machine communication: GSM is used in a variety of machine-to-machine (M2M) applications, such as remote monitoring and control of equipment and systems.

  5. Internet of Things (IoT) applications: GSM is used in a variety of IoT applications, such as smart home devices and wearable technology, to enable connectivity and communication between devices



H

Hashing

Forensic hashing is the process of creating a digital fingerprint, or hash, of a file or piece of evidence in order to verify its authenticity and integrity. Hashing algorithms, such as MD5 or SHA-1, create a unique string of characters that represents the contents of a file. If even a single bit of the file is changed, the resulting hash will be completely different.

Forensic hashing is used in digital forensics to ensure that evidence has not been tampered with or altered in any way. For example, if a suspect's computer is seized as evidence, a forensic analyst may create hashes of the files on the computer in order to verify their integrity. If the hashes match the original hashes created at the time of seizure, it is an indication that the files have not been tampered with.

Forensic hashing is also used to identify duplicates of a file. If two files have the same hash, it is highly likely that they are identical copies. This can be useful in cases where there may be multiple copies of a file, such as a piece of malware or a stolen document.

In addition to verifying the authenticity and integrity of evidence, forensic hashing can also be used to identify known malicious files. Many antivirus software programs maintain databases of known malicious hashes, which allows them to quickly identify and block these files.

Overall, forensic hashing is an important tool in digital forensics, as it allows analysts to verify the authenticity and integrity of evidence and identify known malicious files.



Human Smuggling

Human smuggling is the illegal transportation of individuals across international borders, often for the purpose of exploitation or profit. It can involve a variety of methods, such as hiding people in the back of a truck or smuggling them on a boat or plane.

Here are some examples of human smuggling:

  1. Forced labor: Human smugglers may transport individuals across borders and then sell them into forced labor situations, such as factories or agriculture.

  2. Sex trafficking: Human smugglers may transport individuals, often women and children, across borders and sell them into the sex trade.

  3. Illegal immigration: Some people may turn to human smugglers in order to illegally enter a country in search of work or a better life.

  4. Political asylum: Human smugglers may transport individuals who are seeking political asylum from persecution or violence in their home country.

Human smuggling is a serious crime that often involves significant risks for the individuals being smuggled. It can lead to exploitation, abuse, and even death. It is also a major problem for many countries, as it can contribute to illegal immigration and other related issues.



Human Trafficking

Human trafficking is a serious crime that involves the exploitation of people for the purpose of forced labor or sexual exploitation. It is often referred to as modern-day slavery, as it involves the use of force, coercion, or deception to control and exploit individuals.

Here are some examples of human trafficking:

  1. Forced labor: This refers to the use of force or coercion to make someone work against their will, often in conditions that are dangerous, unhealthy, or abusive. Examples of forced labor can include working in factories, farms, or mines, or performing domestic work or other services.

  2. Sexual exploitation: This involves the use of force, coercion, or deception to make someone engage in sexual activities against their will, such as prostitution or pornography. This can also include forced marriage or other forms of sexual slavery.

  3. Organ trafficking: This involves the buying and selling of organs, often through the use of force or coercion. This can include organs such as kidneys, livers, or hearts, and often involves individuals who are desperate for money or in vulnerable situations.

  4. Child trafficking: This refers to the exploitation of children for the purpose of forced labor or sexual exploitation. This can include children who are forced to work in dangerous conditions, such as in factories or mines, or children who are forced into prostitution or pornography.

Human trafficking is a global problem that affects millions of people around the world. It is often linked to other crimes, such as drug trafficking and organized crime, and can have serious consequences for the physical and mental health of the individuals who are exploited.

From an investigator standpoint (always be carefuland practice OSINT): 

  1. Identify online platforms and communities that are popular traffickers: Traffickers often use online forums, websites, and social media platforms to advertise illicit services, recruit victims and communicate with potential clients. Research which websites and platforms traffickers are frequenting and sign up to them as an anonymous user to gain access to information.
  2. Monitor discussion boards to capture real-time data: Traffickers often use hidden message board codes to communicate. Monitor discussion boards, including general and specialized forums and closed groups, to capture real-time data and clues regarding trafficking activity.
  3. Use sophisticated keyword searches: Use advanced search engine query techniques to run keyword searches related to human trafficking on social media. Monitor search results and keep a log of anything suspicious.
  4. Track hashtag campaigns: Traffickers might use certain hashtag campaigns to bring attention to their offerings. Track these hashtags and try to uncover any related data or victims.
  5. Utilize mapping tools: Use online tools that allow you to map activity and trends related to human trafficking. Identify hot spots of activity and patterns in the data.
  6. Scour public safety websites and databases: Regularly visit public safety websites, such as those for local law enforcement, for data related to human trafficking. Cross-reference this information with your own data and research to draw further conclusions.
  7. Engage online: When applicable and appropriate, open yourself up to contact with potential traffickers and/or victims by providing a safe space for them to share their stories, thoughts and feelings. Take what they disclose and document it accordingly.


HUMINT

Human Intelligence (HUMINT) refers to information gathered and analyzed by human sources, rather than through electronic or technical means. It involves the collection and analysis of information from people, either directly through conversation or observation, or indirectly through documents, images, or other materials.

Examples of HUMINT include:

  1. Interrogation: Information gathered through questioning or interviewing people, often for intelligence purposes.
  2. Espionage: The act of gathering information from an enemy or foreign power through covert means, such as spying or infiltration.
  3. Network analysis: Examining the relationships between individuals and organizations in order to gather intelligence on their activities and intentions.
  4. Human reconnaissance: Observing and gathering information on a location or situation through the use of human eyes and ears, rather than through technical means such as drones or satellite imagery.
  5. Cultural analysis: Examining the customs, beliefs, and behaviors of a particular group or culture in order to better understand and predict their actions.

HUMINT is often used in conjunction with other forms of intelligence gathering, such as technical intelligence (TECHINT) or open-source intelligence (OSINT). It can be a valuable tool in understanding the motivations and intentions of individuals or groups, as well as in developing strategies for intelligence gathering and analysis.


I

IOC

An indicator of compromise (IOC) is a piece of evidence that suggests that an information system or network has been compromised or is at risk of being compromised. This could include suspicious activity or behavior, changes in system configurations, or other anomalies that suggest the presence of malicious activity.

There are many different types of IOCs that can be used to detect and identify potential threats to a system or network. Some examples include:

  1. Malware: Malware, or malicious software, is a type of IOC that is used to infect a system or network with malicious code. This could include viruses, worms, trojans, or other types of malware that are designed to compromise the security of a system or network.

  2. Network traffic: Network traffic is another type of IOC that can be used to identify potential threats. This could include unusual traffic patterns, such as large amounts of data being transferred between two systems, or strange connections to external servers.

  3. System logs: System logs are a valuable resource for identifying IOCs because they record all activity on a system or network. This could include logins, file access, and other system events that could be indicative of malicious activity.

  4. File changes: Changes to system or network files can also be an IOC. For example, if a system administrator notices that a critical system file has been modified without their knowledge, this could be an indication of a compromise.

  5. User behavior: User behavior is another type of IOC that can be used to identify potential threats. This could include unusual logins, access to sensitive data, or other unusual activities that might suggest malicious intent.

Overall, IOCs are an important tool for detecting and responding to potential security threats. By monitoring for these indicators, organizations can take proactive steps to protect their systems and networks from compromise.



M

Malware Analysis

Malware analysis is the process of studying and examining malicious software (malware) in order to understand how it works, what it does, and how it can be detected and removed. This is typically done by security professionals, researchers, and other experts who specialize in analyzing and identifying malware threats.

There are several different techniques and approaches that can be used in malware analysis, including:

  1. Static analysis: This involves examining the code or structure of the malware without actually executing it. This can be done manually or using automated tools, and can help identify the specific functions and capabilities of the malware.

  2. Dynamic analysis: This involves running the malware in a controlled environment (such as a sandbox) in order to observe its behavior and effects. This can help identify how the malware interacts with other systems and processes, and what it is designed to do.

  3. Reverse engineering: This involves disassembling the malware and examining its underlying code in order to understand how it works and what it does. This can be done manually or using specialized tools.

Examples of malware analysis include:

  1. Identifying a new strain of ransomware and determining how it encrypts files and demands payment from victims.

  2. Analyzing a malware sample to determine its origin, target, and intended purpose.

  3. Examining a malicious email attachment in order to understand how it infects a computer and what it does once it is executed.

  4. Reverse engineering a piece of malware to identify vulnerabilities or weaknesses that can be exploited to remove or mitigate its effects.



MBR

The master boot record (MBR) is a small piece of code located on the first sector of a hard drive that is responsible for booting the operating system. When a computer is turned on, the MBR is loaded into memory and executes the bootloader, which then loads the operating system.

The MBR consists of several components, including:

  1. A bootstrap program: This is a small piece of code that is responsible for loading the bootloader into memory.

  2. A partition table: This table contains information about the layout of the hard drive, including the location and size of each partition.

  3. A disk signature: This is a unique identifier for the hard drive that is used to identify it to the operating system.

The MBR has a fixed size of 512 bytes and is typically stored on a hard drive in the first sector. It is important to note that the MBR is separate from the bootloader and the operating system, and is not affected by changes to these components.

One example of the importance of the MBR is in the case of malware that infects the MBR. Some types of malware, such as bootkits, are designed to infect the MBR and modify the boot process in order to gain access to the system. This can allow the malware to persist even after the operating system is reinstalled, making it difficult to remove.

In order to protect against MBR infections, it is important to regularly update the operating system and antivirus software, and to be cautious when downloading and installing software from untrusted sources. Additionally, it is a good practice to regularly create backups of the MBR in case it is compromised.



Meta Data

Meta data refers to data about data, or information that provides context and context for a specific set of data. In computer forensics, meta data can be incredibly useful in helping to identify and understand the context of various types of data that may be present on a computer or digital device.

Here are some examples of meta data in computer forensics:

  1. File metadata: This refers to information about a specific file, such as its name, size, creation date, last modified date, and any other relevant details. For example, if a forensic investigator is examining a computer for evidence of illegal activity, they may look at the file metadata for files that were created or modified around the time of the alleged crime.

  2. Email metadata: Email metadata includes information about an email message, such as the sender, recipient, subject line, and any other details that may be relevant to the investigation. For example, if an investigator is looking at emails related to an insider trading case, they may look at the metadata for emails sent between two individuals in order to identify any patterns or connections.

  3. Web browser metadata: Web browsers often store metadata about the websites that a user visits, such as the URL, title, and date visited. This can be useful in forensic investigations to identify which websites a person has visited and when.

  4. Exif metadata: Exif metadata refers to information that is embedded in a digital image file, such as the camera make and model, date and time the photo was taken, and any other details about the photograph. This can be useful in forensic investigations to help identify the origin of an image or to establish a timeline of events.

Overall, meta data can provide valuable context and context for computer forensics investigations, helping investigators to identify patterns, connections, and trends in the data they are examining



N

Nmap

Nmap (Network Mapper) is an open source network security tool used for network exploration and security auditing. Its primary purpose is to detect active network connections and services as well as hosts and operating systems that are running on the network. Nmap can be used to perform port scans, run intrusion detection systems, identify system vulnerabilities, and more. It is often used as a tool for security professionals to gain an understanding of their networks or to detect and analyze suspicious activity.

For example, an administrator may run a Nmap scan to see what machine addresses, ports, and services are available on the network and afterwards use this information to configure a firewall. For instance, they may block or limit access to ports they do not trust or use to improve the security of their network.

Another example is using Nmap to detect hosts on the network. This can be helpful for identifying potential intruders or for tracking down machines that are not visible to the network due to being outside of the allowed range. In addition, Nmap can be used to look for open ports and services running on those ports so the security team can investigate further what is running and if any potential threats are present.

Nmap can also be used for vulnerability scanning to detect potential security issues. For example, a scan can be used to determine if services and services versions that are vulnerable to known threats are running on the network. This allows the security team to take appropriate and timely action to fix or mitigate the issue.

Finally, Nmap can be used to run operating system fingerprinting to detect what operating system is running on a given machine. This can help identify possible malicious activity or detect compromised machines on the network.


O

OPSEC

Operational security (OPSEC) refers to the protection of sensitive information and activities in order to prevent adversaries from gaining an advantage or disrupting operations. In the military, OPSEC is critical to the success of missions and the safety of personnel.

Examples of OPSEC considerations in the military include:

  1. Security of communications: Ensuring that sensitive information is not compromised through unsecured communication channels, such as phone or email. This may involve using encrypted communication methods or secure communication devices.

  2. Physical security: Protecting military facilities and equipment from unauthorized access or tampering. This may involve measures such as security patrols, perimeter fencing, and access controls.

  3. Personnel security: Protecting the identities and personal information of military personnel in order to prevent adversaries from targeting individuals or their families. This may involve measures such as strict control of personal information and use of pseudonyms or code names.

  4. Operations security: Protecting the details of military operations in order to prevent adversaries from gaining an advantage or disrupting the mission. This may involve measures such as disguising the true purpose of an operation or using misdirection to mislead adversaries.

Overall, OPSEC is an important consideration in the military as it helps to protect sensitive information and activities, ensuring the success of missions and the safety of personnel.



OSI Model

The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model is a framework for understanding how communication occurs between different devices within a computer network. It is composed of seven different layers, each of which performs a specific function in the communication process. These layers are:

  1. Physical Layer: This layer deals with the physical connection between devices, including the transmission media (such as cables or wireless signals) and the hardware (such as network interface cards) used to transmit data. Protocols at this layer include Ethernet, WiFi, and Bluetooth.

  2. Data Link Layer: This layer is responsible for establishing a connection between two devices and ensuring that the data is transmitted accurately between them. Protocols at this layer include MAC (Media Access Control) addresses, which are unique identifiers assigned to each device on the network.

  3. Network Layer: This layer is responsible for routing data packets between devices, ensuring that they reach their intended destination even if the network topology changes. Protocols at this layer include IP (Internet Protocol), which provides a unique address for each device on the network, and routing protocols such as OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) and BGP (Border Gateway Protocol).

  4. Transport Layer: This layer is responsible for ensuring that data is delivered reliably between devices, including retransmitting any lost or corrupted packets. Protocols at this layer include TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol).  Some argue that SSL and TLS now reside on this layer.

  5. Session Layer: This layer is a framework for understanding how data is transmitted over networks. The session layer is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating communication sessions between computers. Some of the protocols that operate at the session layer include:

    • NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System)
    • RPC (Remote Procedure Call)
    • SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
    • SS7 (Signaling System No. 7)

    NetBIOS is a protocol that provides services such as name resolution, datagram transmission, and session establishment for applications on a network. RPC is a protocol that allows a computer to request a service from a program located on another computer, and it is used to build distributed applications. SIP is a signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, modifying and terminating real-time sessions that involve video, voice, messaging and other communications applications and services between endpoints on the Internet. SS7 is a signaling system that is used to set up and tear down telephone calls, as well as to provide other services such as caller ID and call forwarding

  6. Presentation Layer: This layer is responsible for formatting and encoding data so that it can be transmitted between devices. Protocols at this layer include ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) and JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group).

  7. Application Layer: This layer is the highest layer in the OSI model and is responsible for providing services to the user, such as file transfer, email, and web browsing. Protocols at this layer include FTP (File Transfer Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

In summary, the OSI model is a framework that helps to understand how communication occurs between devices on a computer network, with each layer performing a specific function in the process. Protocols at each layer provide the necessary standards and protocols to ensure that data is transmitted accurately and reliably between devices.



OSINT

OSINT stands for "Open-Source Intelligence." It is the practice of collecting and analyzing information from publicly available sources to support decision-making or research. This includes information from the internet, social media, newspapers, television, radio, and other open sources.

Examples of OSINT include:

  1. Researching a company's financial performance by analyzing publicly available financial statements and news articles.

  2. Investigating a person's background by searching for their name on social media platforms, public records, and online directories.

  3. Analyzing a country's political climate by studying news articles and social media posts from local sources.

  4. Tracking the spread of a disease by collecting data from healthcare websites and social media accounts.

  5. Monitoring the activities of a political organization by analyzing their website and social media posts.

Overall, OSINT is a powerful tool for gathering information about a wide range of topics, from individuals and organizations to countries and events. It is an essential part of intelligence gathering and is often used in conjunction with other forms of intelligence, such as human intelligence (HUMINT) and signal intelligence (SIGINT).


P

Plain View

The plain view doctrine is a legal principle that allows law enforcement officers to seize evidence that is in plain view without a warrant. This doctrine is based on the idea that if an officer is lawfully present in a location and sees evidence of a crime in plain view, they have the right to seize that evidence without the need for a warrant.

Here are some examples of how the plain view doctrine might be applied:

  1. If an officer is conducting a traffic stop and sees drugs or a weapon in plain view in the vehicle, they can seize those items without a warrant.

  2. If an officer is responding to a noise complaint and sees illegal drugs on a coffee table as they enter the apartment, they can seize the drugs without a warrant.

  3. If an officer is serving a warrant for one crime and sees evidence of another crime in plain view, they can seize that evidence without a separate warrant.

There are some limitations to the plain view doctrine. The evidence must be in plain view, meaning that it is clearly visible to the officer. The officer must also be lawfully present in the location where the evidence is found. Additionally, the officer must have probable cause to believe that the evidence is connected to a crime.

Here are some examples of how the plain view doctrine might be applied in digital forensics:

  1. Searching a suspect's home: If a police officer has a warrant to search a suspect's home for drugs, and while searching they come across a laptop on the kitchen table with child pornography on the screen, they can seize the laptop and use the evidence against the suspect without violating their Fourth Amendment rights.

  2. Searching a suspect's phone: If a police officer has probable cause to search a suspect's phone and while searching they come across evidence of a crime, they can seize the phone and use the evidence against the suspect without violating their Fourth Amendment rights.

  3. Searching a suspect's email: If a police officer has probable cause to search a suspect's email account and while searching they come across evidence of a crime, they can seize the email account and use the evidence against the suspect without violating their Fourth Amendment rights.

Overall, the plain view doctrine allows law enforcement officers to seize evidence that is in plain view if they have a legitimate reason for being in the location where the evidence is found and if the evidence is clearly related to a crime. This doctrine can be a powerful tool for digital forensics investigators, as it allows them to seize electronic devices and data without having to obtain a warrant. 



Preservation of Evidence

Preservation of evidence refers to the process of safeguarding and protecting physical or digital evidence that may be used as evidence in a legal or investigative context. It involves ensuring that the evidence is collected, stored, and handled in a way that maintains its integrity and authenticity.

There are several reasons why it is important to preserve evidence. First, preserving evidence helps to ensure that it is available for use in legal proceedings. For example, if a crime has been committed, the police may need to collect physical evidence such as fingerprints, DNA, or other forensic evidence to help identify the perpetrator. If this evidence is not properly preserved, it may be contaminated, damaged, or lost, making it difficult or impossible to use in a court of law.

Second, preserving evidence helps to establish the chain of custody, which refers to the record of who has had possession of the evidence at different points in time. This is important because it helps to establish the authenticity and reliability of the evidence. For example, if the police collect evidence from a crime scene, they must maintain a record of who handled the evidence, how it was stored, and how it was transported to ensure that it is not compromised in any way.

Examples of preservation of evidence include:

  1. Collecting and storing physical evidence such as fingerprints, DNA, or other forensic evidence in a secure location to prevent contamination or tampering.

  2. Maintaining a chain of custody record to document who has handled the evidence and how it has been stored or transported.

  3. Securely storing digital evidence such as emails, text messages, or other electronic documents in a way that preserves their authenticity and integrity.

  4. Using secure servers or cloud storage to store digital evidence to prevent unauthorized access or tampering.

  5. Ensuring that evidence is handled in a way that preserves its authenticity, such as using gloves when handling physical evidence to prevent contamination.


Probable Cause

Probable cause refers to the legal standard that must be met in order to justify the search or seizure of property or the arrest of an individual. It requires that there be a reasonable belief that a crime has been committed or is about to be committed, and that the property or person in question is connected to the crime in some way.

Here are some examples of probable cause:

  1. A police officer witnesses a suspect breaking into a car and stealing items from inside. The officer has probable cause to arrest the suspect for theft.

  2. A police officer receives a tip from a reliable informant that a person is selling illegal drugs out of their home. The officer has probable cause to obtain a search warrant for the person's home.

  3. A police officer sees a person driving erratically and swerving across lanes on the highway. The officer has probable cause to pull the person over and investigate for possible drunk driving.

  4. A police officer receives a report of a domestic disturbance and arrives at the scene to find one person with visible injuries and the other person holding a weapon. The officer has probable cause to arrest the person with the weapon for assault.

Probable cause must be based on specific facts and circumstances, and cannot be based on mere suspicion or speculation. It is an important legal principle that helps to protect the rights of individuals and ensure that law enforcement has a valid reason for conducting searches, seizures, or arrests.

Probable cause in digital forensics refers to the standard of evidence required for a forensic investigator to justify the search, seizure, and examination of digital devices or data. In the Us, this standard is based on the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures.

In order to establish probable cause in digital forensics, an investigator must provide evidence that suggests that a crime has been committed and that digital devices or data may contain evidence of that crime. This evidence may be based on a variety of factors, including witness testimony, physical evidence, or other circumstances that support the belief that a crime has been committed.

Here are some examples of probable cause in digital forensics:

  1. A witness reports seeing an individual accessing and downloading child pornography on their computer. This information, combined with other evidence, may be sufficient to establish probable cause for a forensic investigation of the individual's computer.

  2. A company suspects that an employee is leaking confidential information to competitors. The company may provide evidence of this suspicion, such as email communications or other data that suggests the employee is engaging in inappropriate behavior. This evidence may be used to establish probable cause for a forensic investigation of the employee's computer and other digital devices.

  3. A forensic investigator receives a tip from a reliable source that a suspect may be using encrypted messaging apps to communicate with other individuals about illegal activities. This information, combined with other evidence, may be sufficient to establish probable cause for a forensic investigation of the suspect's phone and other digital devices.

Overall, probable cause in digital forensics is a critical standard that must be met in order for forensic investigators to conduct searches and seizures of digital devices and data. It helps to ensure that the privacy rights of individuals are protected while also allowing investigators to gather the necessary evidence to solve crimes and bring perpetrators to justice



Purple Team

A purple team is an internal security team that combines the skills of both red and blue teams to create comprehensive security solutions. Red teams are responsible for offensive actions, such as penetration testing and simulation of attacks, while blue teams are responsible for defensive actions such as system hardening and incident response.

Purple teams use a combination of both offensive and defensive techniques to increase their structured review of systems and networks. They use the same tools and techniques employed in the red and blue teams, but take extra time to analyze the results and suggest corrective measures to improve the security of the system or network. 

Purple teams also focus on testing and validating an organization’s security processes, such as policy, patch management, backup and recovery. This ensures that operational and security processes are understood and correctly configured. Further, purple teams ensure that the organization conducts periodic testing and maintains up-to-date procedures and processes.

The goal of purple teams is to augment the capabilities of red and blue teams to explore the most important vulnerabilities and proactively ensure that the organization’s defenses remain secure. This typically includes the following steps: 

  1. Scanning and mapping the network infrastructure to identify any vulnerabilities and attack points  
  2. Exploiting any known vulnerabilities, such as weak passwords or incomplete patching
  3. Exploiting or simulating new or emerging threats
  4. Implementing recommended defensive measures from the blue team task
  5. Creating reports that include recommendations for remediation or mitigation 

Purple teams enable organizations to have a comprehensive view of their security posture. By combining the perspectives of red and blue teams, organizations can gain a more holistic view of the network and identify any weaknesses or threat vectors. Furthermore, purple teams can increase security levels and proactively safeguard the organization’s networks and infrastructure against external threats.


Pyramid of Pain

The threat hunting pyramid of pain is a concept that describes the progression of an adversary's actions in an attack, from initial access to the final goal of the attack. It is a way for security professionals to visualize and understand the different stages of an attack and how they can detect and respond to it.

The pyramid consists of five levels:

  1. Initial access: This is the point at which an adversary gains access to a network or system. Examples of initial access include phishing attacks, exploitation of a vulnerability, or physical access to a device.

  2. Execution: After gaining initial access, the adversary will execute their attack plan. This can include installing malware, running scripts or commands, or modifying system settings.

  3. Persistence: In order to maintain a foothold in the system, the adversary will establish persistence. This can involve creating new user accounts, modifying system policies, or installing backdoors.

  4. Privilege escalation: The adversary may then try to escalate their privileges in order to gain greater access to the system. This can involve exploiting vulnerabilities or using stolen credentials to access restricted areas.

  5. Lateral movement: Finally, the adversary will attempt to move laterally within the system, gaining access to more resources and potentially reaching their final goal. This can include accessing other systems on the network, exfiltrating data, or sabotaging the system.

In threat hunting, security professionals will look for indicators of compromise at each level of the pyramid, starting with initial access and working their way up. For example, they might look for phishing emails or suspicious activity in system logs to identify initial access. They might then look for signs of malware execution or persistence, such as strange processes running or changes to system policies. By understanding the steps an adversary takes in an attack, security professionals can better detect and respond to threats.



R

Ransomeware

Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts a victim's files, rendering them inaccessible until a ransom is paid to the attacker to restore access. The ransom is typically demanded in the form of cryptocurrency, such as Bitcoin, in order to maintain the anonymity of the attacker.

Ransomware attacks can be particularly devastating for individuals and organizations, as they can result in the loss of important data and disruption of business operations. In some cases, victims may be unable to recover their data even if the ransom is paid, as there is no guarantee that the attacker will actually restore access to the files.

There are several types of ransomware, including:

  1. Cryptojacking ransomware: This type of ransomware uses the victim's computer resources to mine cryptocurrency for the attacker.

  2. Encrypting ransomware: This type of ransomware encrypts the victim's files and demands a ransom in exchange for the decryption key.

  3. Locker ransomware: This type of ransomware locks the victim out of their computer or device and demands a ransom in order to restore access.

  4. Ransomware-as-a-service: This type of ransomware is offered as a service to other attackers, who can use it to carry out ransomware attacks on their own.

One well-known example of ransomware is the WannaCry attack, which affected thousands of organizations and individuals in 2017. The WannaCry ransomware encrypted victims' files and demanded a ransom of $300 in Bitcoin in order to restore access.

Overall, ransomware is a serious threat to individuals and organizations, and can result in significant financial and operational losses. It is important to take measures to protect against ransomware, such as keeping software and security systems up to date and regularly backing up data.



Red Team

A cyber red team is a type of security assessment that involves simulating real-world attack scenarios within an organization’s network environment in order to identify any existing weaknesses or vulnerabilities that could be exploited by malicious actors. A cyber security red team is essentially a specialized group of cyber security professionals who use their knowledge of the latest attack techniques to test a company’s security posture across the entirety of its networks and systems. The primary goal of a cyber red team is to identify and assess any potential threats and vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by malicious actors.

The cyber red team generally consists of experienced professionals with a deep understanding of the cyber security landscape and the latest attack techniques. They are often skilled in advanced penetration testing, detailed SecOps, forensics, and threat intelligence. Cyber red teams are typically employed by organizations to constantly assess their security posture and ensure that their networks and systems are secure against potential threats.

In addition to assessing a company’s security posture, the cyber red team may also be tasked with looking for any areas of weakness within the organization’s policies and procedures. This can include evaluating the effectiveness of employee training and security policies, as well as ensuring that the organization is following the latest government regulations. Once any weak spots have been identified, the cyber red team works with the organization to develop security measures and best practices for addressing them.

Essentially, the cyber red team provides organizations with in-depth security assessments of their current security posture and helps them identify any areas of improvement. By acting as a proactive security measure, the cyber red team helps organizations reduce the risk of being compromised by malicious actors and protect the security of their networks and systems.


S

Script Kiddie

A script kiddie (also known as a skiddie) is an individual who uses pre-written scripts or code—often stolen or borrowed without permission or knowledge—to attack computer systems or networks. Script kiddies are not necessarily malicious hackers, and the term is often used to describe those with little or no technical knowledge who use scripts or programs written by more skilled hackers to launch simple attacks against unsuspecting victims.

These attacks typically involve using vulnerable programs to gain unauthorized access to systems, networks, or websites. For example, a script kiddie may borrow or steal someone else’s script or program and use it to exploit vulnerable software and gain access to the system. Script kiddies will often target systems or networks for their own amusement and may not have any malicious intent.

Though script kiddies may possess some basic knowledge of computer programming and coding, they often lack the technical expertise necessary to understand the risks associated with their attacks. As a result, their activities may cause unnecessary disruption or damage to systems.

The term "script kiddie" is often used negatively and viewed derogatorily by experienced hackers and cybersecurity professionals. Script kiddies are often viewed as irresponsible and reckless, and their activities can be dangerous for both them and those they target.


SDR

An SDR radio, or software-defined radio, is a radio communication system that uses software to define the characteristics of the radio signal. This allows the radio to be reconfigured and adapt to different frequencies and modes without the need for hardware changes.

SDR radios have become increasingly popular in recent years due to their flexibility and ability to support a wide range of communication protocols. They can be used for a variety of purposes, including amateur radio, military communications, and commercial applications.

One of the key benefits of SDR radios is that they can be easily modified and customized using software. This allows users to adapt the radio to their specific needs and requirements, rather than being limited to the capabilities of a fixed hardware design.

For example, an amateur radio operator may use an SDR radio to receive and transmit on a wide range of frequencies, including shortwave, medium wave, and high frequency. They may also use software to add features such as digital voice decoding or automatic frequency control.

Another example of an SDR radio is the HackRF, which is a low-cost, open-source SDR radio that can be used for a variety of purposes, including wireless testing, RF analysis, and digital signal processing. The HackRF can be programmed and modified using software, making it a popular choice among hobbyists and researchers.

Overall, SDR radios are a versatile and flexible tool for radio communication, and can be customized and adapted to a wide range of purposes using software. They offer a cost-effective and efficient alternative to traditional hardware-based radios.



SIGINT

Sigint, or Signals Intelligence, refers to the collection and analysis of electronic signals and communications for the purpose of obtaining strategic, military, or intelligence information. This can include intercepting and analyzing phone calls, emails, and other electronic communication, as well as tracking and analyzing satellite and radar signals.

Examples of Sigint activities include:

  1. Monitoring and intercepting phone calls and emails between foreign government officials to gather information about their plans and intentions.

  2. Tracking and analyzing satellite signals to determine the location and movements of foreign military units.

  3. Analyzing radar signals to determine the capabilities and capabilities of foreign military aircraft.

  4. Monitoring social media and other online communication to gather intelligence on political or military activities in other countries.

  5. Analyzing and decoding encrypted communications to gather sensitive information.

Overall, Sigint is an important tool for intelligence agencies to gather and analyze information about foreign governments, military activities, and other strategic information that may be relevant to national security.


Sock Puppet

A sock puppet account for investigations is a fake or dummy account that is used by investigators for the purpose of gathering information or conducting covert operations. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as to gather intelligence on a suspect, to infiltrate a group or organization, or to gather evidence in a criminal or civil case.

One example of a sock puppet account for investigations might be an investigator creating a fake social media account and using it to interact with a suspect or group of suspects in order to gather information about their activities. The investigator might use the account to ask questions, make small talk, or even try to befriend the suspects in order to gain their trust and gather more information about their activities.

Another example might be an investigator creating a fake account and using it to pose as a member of a particular group or organization in order to gather intelligence about their operations or activities. This could involve the investigator joining online forums or chat groups, participating in discussions, and gathering information about the group's beliefs, goals, and activities.

To make a sock puppet account for online investigations, follow these steps:

  1. Choose a platform: Decide which platform you will be using for your sock puppet account, such as social media, online forums, or chat groups.

  2. Create the account: Follow the steps to create a new account on the chosen platform. Use a fake name and other personal information to create the appearance of a real person.

  3. Customize the account: Add a profile picture and any other personal details that will help the account appear genuine.

  4. Begin interacting: Start using the sock puppet account to interact with other users on the platform. Depending on the purpose of the investigation, this may involve asking questions, joining discussions, or even trying to make friends with suspects or other individuals of interest.

  5. Monitor and gather information: Keep track of the interactions and information gathered through the sock puppet account, making note of any relevant details or evidence.

  6. Dispose of the account: When the investigation is complete, it is important to dispose of the sock puppet account in a way that does not arouse suspicion. This may involve deleting the account or simply leaving it inactive. Overall, the key to a successful sock puppet account for online investigations is to create a believable persona and gather information in a covert and non-intrusive manner.

There are several operational security (OPSEC) considerations to keep in mind when using sock puppet accounts for investigations:

  1. Cover story: It is important to have a believable cover story for the sock puppet account, in order to avoid arousing suspicion or drawing attention to the account. This may involve creating a fake name, location, and personal details for the account.

  2. Communications: When communicating through the sock puppet account, it is important to be careful about what information is shared and with whom. This includes avoiding revealing personal details or sensitive information that could compromise the investigation.

  3. Access: It is important to carefully control access to the sock puppet account, including who can see the account and who has the ability to log in and use it.

  4. Evidence: Any information or evidence gathered through the sock puppet account must be properly documented and handled in accordance with laws and regulations.

  5. Disposal: When the investigation is complete, it is important to properly dispose of the sock puppet account in a way that does not arouse suspicion or draw attention to the account.

Overall, it is important to be mindful of OPSEC considerations when using sock puppet accounts for investigations in order to protect the integrity of the investigation and avoid compromising sensitive information.

Overall, sock puppet accounts for investigations are a valuable tool for investigators as they allow them to gather information and evidence in a covert and non-intrusive manner. By using a fake account, investigators can gather valuable intelligence without arousing suspicion or alerting suspects to their presence.



SOCMINT

Socmint, or social media intelligence, is the practice of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information from social media platforms for the purpose of understanding trends, sentiments, and behaviors within a specific group or community. This information can be used by businesses, government agencies, or individuals to make informed decisions or take specific actions.

Examples of socmint include:

  1. A company analyzing customer reviews on their social media pages to understand customer satisfaction levels and identify areas for improvement.

  2. A government agency monitoring social media for potential threats or warnings of a crisis, such as a natural disaster or terrorist attack.

  3. An individual using socmint techniques to understand the online behavior and interests of their target audience, in order to craft more effective marketing campaigns.

  4. A political campaign team using socmint to analyze social media conversations about their candidate, in order to tailor their messaging and outreach efforts.



Static Malware Analysis

Static malware analysis is the process of analyzing and examining a piece of malware without actually running or executing it. This means that the malware is analyzed in its dormant state, without the need to create a sandbox or emulate a system environment in which it can run.

There are several methods of static malware analysis, including:

  1. Disassembly: This involves reversing the compiled code of the malware into its original source code. This can reveal the inner workings and intended function of the malware.

  2. Decompilation: This process involves converting the compiled code back into a high-level programming language, such as C or Python. This can make it easier to understand the code and see what it is intended to do.

  3. String analysis: This involves examining the strings of characters within the malware code, as these can often contain clues about its intended function or the techniques it uses.

  4. File header analysis: This involves examining the metadata of the malware file, such as the file type, size, and creation date, which can provide clues about its origin and purpose.

An example of static malware analysis might be examining a piece of ransomware to determine how it encrypts files and what techniques it uses to evade detection. Another example might be analyzing a trojan horse to determine how it is delivered and what actions it takes once it has been installed on a system.



Steganography

Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, or other transmission within another file, message, or transmission. It is used to hide the presence of a hidden message so as to avoid detection or scrutiny.

One of the most common examples of steganography is when someone hides a message or file within an image file. For example, the sender may hide text in an image by changing the color of certain pixels of the image to a specific set of values not visible to the naked eye.

Another commonly used steganographic technique is to embed hidden messages within audio, video, or multimedia files. The sender will employ a specific algorithm to embed the message within the data of the file and make it undetectable once the file is sent. 

Finally, the use of white space in communication is also considered a form steganography. This involves the sender leaving gaps between words or letters. This allows the sender to disguise a secret message within the text by leaving gaps that only the recipient will be aware of. 

Steganography is becoming increasingly popular among cyber criminals and terrorists as it helps them conceal sensitive data and spread their message across the internet without detection.


Surface/Deep/Dark Web

The surface web, deep web, and dark web are three different layers of the internet, each with its own unique characteristics and accessibility.

The surface web is the portion of the internet that is easily accessible to anyone with an internet connection. It consists of websites that can be found through search engines like Google, and it is the part of the internet that most people use on a daily basis. Examples of surface web content include social media platforms, news websites, and online shopping sites.

The deep web is a layer of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and is not easily accessible to the general public. It consists of websites and databases that are not meant to be publicly available, such as government databases, internal company systems, and password-protected websites. Accessing the deep web requires specific software or authorization, and it is often used for legitimate purposes, such as conducting research or accessing private data.

The dark web is a part of the internet that is accessible only through specialized software, such as the Tor network. It is known for its anonymity and is often used for illegal activities, such as the sale of illegal goods and services, human trafficking, and the sharing of sensitive information. The dark web is not indexed by search engines and is not easily accessible to the general public.

In summary, the surface web is the part of the internet that is easily accessible and widely used, the deep web is a layer of the internet that is not indexed by search engines and requires special access, and the dark web is a part of the internet that is only accessible through specialized software and is often used for illegal activities.



T

TECHINT

Techint is a term that refers to the technical intelligence of an organization or individual. It is the ability to gather, analyze, and use technical information in order to make informed decisions, solve problems, and develop new technologies.

Examples of techint might include:

  1. Researching new technologies and materials in order to improve a product or process. For example, a manufacturer might use techint to research the properties of different plastics in order to choose the best one for a particular application.

  2. Analyzing technical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and potential problems. For example, a company might use techint to analyze data from its manufacturing processes in order to identify areas of inefficiency or potential failure.

  3. Gathering and analyzing technical information in order to inform decision-making processes. For example, a company might use techint to evaluate the costs and benefits of different production methods in order to choose the most cost-effective one.

  4. Developing new technologies based on technical research and analysis. For example, a company might use techint to identify opportunities for innovation and then use that information to create new products or processes.

Overall, techint is an important tool for organizations and individuals who want to make informed, data-driven decisions and stay ahead of the curve in a rapidly changing world. So, it is a very important aspect in the development and growth of any organization or individual.


Threat Hunting

Threat hunting is the proactive process of searching for and identifying potential threats within an organization's network. It involves the use of specialized tools and techniques to identify patterns of malicious activity or indicators of compromise (IOCs) that may not be detected by traditional security measures.

Here are some examples of threat hunting activities:

  1. Analyzing network traffic: Threat hunters may examine network traffic logs to identify unusual or suspicious activity, such as traffic from known malware domains or traffic patterns that suggest an attacker is attempting to exfiltrate data.

  2. Searching for IOCs: Threat hunters may use tools such as antivirus software or intrusion detection systems (IDS) to search for known indicators of compromise, such as specific file hashes or IP addresses associated with known malware.

  3. Conducting system audits: Threat hunters may conduct audits of systems and servers to identify vulnerabilities or misconfigurations that could be exploited by attackers.

  4. Analyzing system logs: Threat hunters may review system logs, such as event logs or firewall logs, to identify unusual activity or events that may indicate the presence of a threat.

  5. Correlating data: Threat hunters may analyze data from various sources, such as network traffic logs, system logs, and user activity logs, to identify patterns or correlations that may indicate the presence of a threat.

Overall, the goal of threat hunting is to identify and mitigate potential threats before they can cause harm to an organization. By proactively searching for threats and identifying indicators of compromise, threat hunters can help to prevent data breaches and other security incidents.



Threat Intelligence

Threat intelligence is information about current and potential threats to an organization or individuals that can be used to inform decision-making and take proactive measures to prevent or mitigate harm. This can include information about cyber threats such as malware or phishing campaigns, as well as physical threats such as terrorism or organized crime.

There are several types of threat intelligence, including:

  • Strategic threat intelligence: This type of threat intelligence is focused on long-term trends and patterns that can inform an organization's overall security posture. It might include information about the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by threat actors, as well as analysis of the potential impact of these threats on the organization.

  • Operational threat intelligence: This type of threat intelligence is focused on more immediate threats that are currently facing an organization. It might include information about ongoing phishing campaigns or zero-day vulnerabilities that need to be addressed.

  • Tactical threat intelligence: This type of threat intelligence is focused on very specific threats that require a quick response. It might include information about a specific malware variant that has been used to compromise an organization's systems, or a piece of intelligence that helps to identify the source of an attack.

There are many sources of threat intelligence, including:

  • Internal sources: This might include information from an organization's own security tools, such as firewall logs or antivirus software.

  • External sources: This might include information from government agencies, industry groups, or commercial vendors that specialize in gathering and analyzing threat intelligence.

  • Open source: This might include information from publicly available sources such as social media, news articles, and blogs.

Here is an example of how an organization might use threat intelligence:

  • A financial institution becomes aware of a new phishing campaign targeting its customers. The institution's security team analyzes the phishing emails and discovers that the attackers are using a new strain of malware to infect victims' computers.

  • The security team checks its own systems and finds that a small number of employees have been infected by the malware. It quickly isolates these systems to prevent the malware from spreading.

  • The security team then uses the information it has gathered about the phishing campaign and the malware to inform its customers about the threat and to advise them on how to protect themselves. It also uses this information to update its own security systems and processes to better defend against this type of attack in the future.



Tor

Tor summarized 


The Tor network is a network of servers that allows users to browse the Internet anonymously. When you use the Tor network, your internet traffic is routed through a series of servers, or "nodes," before it reaches its final destination. This makes it difficult for anyone to track your online activities or to identify your location.


The Tor network was originally developed by the U.S. Navy to protect government communications, but it is now used by a wide range of people, including journalists, activists, and ordinary individuals who want to protect their privacy online.


To use the Tor network, you need to install a piece of software called the Tor Browser, which is available for free from the Tor Project website. The Tor Browser is based on the Firefox web browser, and it comes with a number of privacy-enhancing features, such as blocking third-party cookies and preventing websites from tracking your online activities.


While the Tor network can be a valuable tool for protecting your privacy online, it is important to note that it is not foolproof and that it can sometimes be used for illegal purposes, such as accessing websites that host illegal content or facilitating the sale of illegal goods.


Tor Hidden Service

A Tor hidden service is a website or service that is only accessible through the Tor network, a system designed to allow anonymous communication. Hidden services can be used for a variety of purposes, including the protection of privacy and the facilitation of illegal activities.

To access a hidden service, users must use the Tor Browser, which is a modified version of the Firefox browser that routes traffic through the Tor network. Instead of a traditional domain name, hidden services use a unique .onion address, which can only be accessed through the Tor network.

For example, the hidden service known as the "Silk Road" was a black market for the sale of illegal drugs, and could only be accessed through the Tor network using the .onion address "silkroad6ownowfk.onion" (no longer working) .

The .onion DNS system works by routing traffic through a series of randomly-selected servers, known as "relays", in order to obscure the identity and location of the user and the hidden service. This makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies to track the activity of users and hidden services on the Tor network.

However, it is important to note that while the Tor network and hidden services can provide anonymity, they are not completely untraceable. Law enforcement agencies have been able to identify and track users and hidden services on the Tor network using a variety of techniques, such as network analysis and exploiting vulnerabilities in the network.

Overall, the Tor network and hidden services provide a way for users to communicate and access content anonymously.



TTP

TTP, or Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures, refers to the methods and strategies that hackers use to carry out their attacks. These tactics are constantly evolving as hackers develop new techniques and adapt to changing technology and security measures. Some common TTPs used by hackers include:

  1. Phishing attacks: Hackers send fake emails or social media messages that appear to be from a legitimate source in order to trick people into giving away sensitive information such as login credentials or financial information. For example, a hacker may send an email pretending to be from a bank, asking the recipient to confirm their account details for security purposes.

  2. Malware: Hackers use malicious software, or malware, to infect a device or network and gain access to sensitive information. Malware can come in many forms, such as viruses, Trojans, and ransomware. For example, a hacker may send a malware-laden email attachment that infects a computer when opened.

  3. SQL injection: Hackers use SQL injection to access and manipulate a database by injecting malicious code into a website’s input fields. For example, a hacker may enter a string of code into a login form on a website, allowing them to access the site’s database without proper authentication.

  4. Man-in-the-middle attacks: Hackers use this tactic to intercept and alter communications between two parties in order to gain access to sensitive information. For example, a hacker may set up a fake Wi-Fi hotspot and trick people into connecting to it, allowing the hacker to intercept and view their online activity.

  5. Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks: Hackers use DDoS attacks to flood a website or network with traffic, rendering it inaccessible to users. For example, a hacker may use a network of infected computers to send a large number of requests to a website, overwhelming the server and causing it to crash.

Overall, TTPs are constantly evolving as hackers develop new techniques and adapt to changing technology and security measures. It is important for individuals and organizations to stay aware of these tactics and take steps to protect themselves against potential attacks



Tumbling

Cryptocurrency tumbling, also known as cryptocurrency mixing or cryptocurrency laundering, is the process of using a third-party service to mix multiple transactions together in order to obscure the original source of the funds. This is often done in an attempt to maintain anonymity and avoid detection by law enforcement or financial institutions.

There are a few different ways that cryptocurrency tumbling can be accomplished. One common method is through the use of a tumbling service, which takes in multiple transactions from different sources and then mixes them together before sending them back out to new addresses. This makes it difficult to trace the original source of the funds.

Another method is through the use of a cryptocurrency mixer, which is a type of software that can be used to mix different transactions together. Mixers can be used to mix transactions from a single cryptocurrency or from multiple cryptocurrencies, depending on the needs of the user.

Cryptocurrency tumbling can be used for a variety of purposes, including the concealment of illegal activity or the evasion of taxes. For example, a person engaged in illegal drug trafficking may use a tumbling service to mix their transactions with those of other users in order to obscure the source of their funds. Similarly, a person attempting to evade taxes may use a mixer to mix their transactions with those of other users in order to make it more difficult for tax authorities to trace their income.

While cryptocurrency tumbling can be a useful tool for maintaining anonymity, it is important to note that it is not completely foolproof. Law enforcement agencies and financial institutions have developed techniques for tracking and tracing the movement of cryptocurrency, and it is possible that a tumbled transaction could be traced back to its original source. As such, it is important for users to be cautious when using cryptocurrency tumbling services and to understand the potential risks and legal implications involved.



U

UEFI

UEFI, or Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, is a type of firmware that is used to boot up computers and other devices. It replaces the traditional BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) and provides a more modern and flexible interface for booting up a device.

UEFI has a number of advantages over BIOS, including:

  1. Larger capacity: UEFI has a larger capacity than BIOS, which allows it to support larger hard drives and more complex boot processes.

  2. Graphical user interface: UEFI has a graphical user interface (GUI), which makes it easier for users to navigate and configure boot settings.

  3. Security features: UEFI includes security features such as secure boot, which helps prevent malware from loading during the boot process.

  4. Compatibility with newer hardware: UEFI is compatible with newer hardware, such as UEFI-compliant USB drives and hard drives.

One example of a device that uses UEFI is a modern laptop or desktop computer. When the device is turned on, the UEFI firmware loads and begins the boot process. The user can then use the UEFI GUI to select the operating system or boot device, as well as configure other boot options.

Another example of a device that uses UEFI is a modern server. UEFI is often used in servers to allow for more complex boot processes, such as booting from a network or from a logical volume manager.

Overall, UEFI is a modern and flexible firmware that is used to boot up a wide range of devices. Its features and compatibility make it an important part of the boot process for many devices.



UEFI Secure Boot

Secure boot is a security feature found in modern computers that prevents unauthorized software from running during the boot process. It is designed to protect against malware and other threats that may attempt to compromise the system before the operating system has loaded.

Secure boot is implemented through the use of Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI), a standardized interface that controls the boot process of a computer. UEFI replaces the traditional BIOS system and allows for more advanced features such as secure boot.

Secure boot works by requiring that any software that is allowed to run during the boot process must be digitally signed with a trusted certificate. This ensures that only software that has been approved by the manufacturer or the operating system vendor can run. If an unauthorized or untrusted piece of software is detected, it will be blocked from running and the system will not boot.

One example of secure boot in action is the protection against bootkits, which are types of malware that infect the boot process in order to remain hidden and persist on a system. With secure boot enabled, a bootkit would not be able to run and would be detected and blocked before the operating system loads.



W

WiFiPumkin3

WiFiPumkin3 is a piece of open source software that is used to create fake WiFi access points, also known as "evil twins". An evil twin is a WiFi access point that is designed to mimic a legitimate access point in order to trick users into connecting to it.

Once a user connects to an evil twin, the attacker can then intercept and monitor their internet activity. This can be used for a variety of purposes, including stealing personal information, spreading malware, or launching man-in-the-middle attacks.

WiFiPumkin3 is a tool that allows attackers to easily create and configure evil twin access points. It includes a number of features, such as the ability to spoof the MAC address of the access point, redirect traffic to a specific website, and perform man-in-the-middle attacks.

One example of how WiFiPumkin3 could be used is in a public place, such as a coffee shop or airport. An attacker could set up an evil twin access point with a similar name to the legitimate access point, such as "CoffeeShop WiFi". When users connect to the evil twin, the attacker can intercept and monitor their internet activity.

Another example is in a corporate environment, where an attacker could set up an evil twin access point in order to gain access to sensitive information or plant malware on company devices.

Overall, WiFiPumkin3 is a powerful tool that can be used by attackers to create fake WiFi access points and intercept internet activity. It is important for individuals and organizations to be aware of the risks posed by evil twins and take steps to protect themselves. This can include using a VPN or only connecting to trusted WiFi networks.



Writeblocker

A forensic bridge, also known as a write blocker, is a device that is used in digital forensics to prevent any changes from being made to a storage device, such as a hard drive or USB drive, during the forensic imaging process. Write blockers are used in order to preserve the original evidence in its original state and prevent any contamination of the evidence.

There are two main types of forensic bridges: hardware-based and software-based. Hardware-based forensic bridges are physical devices that are connected between the storage device and the forensic analysis computer. They use hardware-level controls to prevent any changes from being made to the storage device.

Software-based forensic bridges, on the other hand, are programs that are installed on the forensic analysis computer and control access to the storage device. These programs can be used in conjunction with hardware-based forensic bridges to provide an additional layer of protection.

Both hardware-based and software-based forensic bridges work by allowing the forensic analyst to read data from the storage device, but preventing any changes from being made. This is useful in cases where the storage device may contain evidence that could be altered or deleted if access is not properly controlled.

For example, a forensic bridge might be used in the investigation of a cybercrime in order to preserve the contents of a suspect's computer for analysis. By using a forensic bridge, the analyst can ensure that the original evidence is not tampered with and that the integrity of the investigation is maintained.

Overall, forensic bridges are an important tool in digital forensics, as they allow analysts to preserve the original evidence and conduct a thorough analysis without the risk of contamination or alteration.




Page:  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  (Next)
  ALL


loader image