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Definitions and Descriptions.


Browse the glossary using this index

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B

Black Market

One of the most well-known examples of illegal activity on the dark web is the existence of black markets. Black markets are online platforms where illegal goods and services can be bought and sold, often using cryptocurrency for anonymity.

One of the most famous black markets on the dark web was the Silk Road, which was launched in 2011 and shut down by the FBI in 2013. The Silk Road was a platform for the sale of illegal drugs, as well as other illicit items such as stolen credit card numbers and fake documents. The website was accessed through the Tor network and transactions were made using Bitcoin to maintain anonymity.

The Silk Road gained notoriety due to its size and the variety of illegal items available for purchase. It was estimated to have had over 100,000 users and millions of dollars in annual sales. The operator of the Silk Road, Ross Ulbricht, was eventually arrested and sentenced to life in prison for his role in the website.

While the Silk Road has been shut down, other black markets continue to operate on the dark web. These include the Evolution market, which was shut down in 2015, and the AlphaBay market, which was shut down in 2017. These markets offer a wide range of illegal goods and services, including drugs, weapons, and stolen personal information.

The existence of black markets on the dark web highlights the potential for illegal activity on this hidden part of the internet. While the dark web can be used for legitimate purposes, it is important for law enforcement agencies to monitor and shut down illegal operations such as black markets in order to maintain the rule of law.



Blue Team

A blue team is a group of professionals responsible for network defense within an organization. They use various security measures to prevent, detect, and respond to intrusions, malicious activities, and other cyberthreats. The blue team monitors network traffic to detect threats, implements protective measures such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, and performs vulnerability scans to detect weaknesses. They also maintain a system of active logs and records that can be used for investigation and forensics when an attack is detected. The blue team also educates users on best security practices and trains staff on security processes and technologies. The goal of the blue team is to keep the network and IT infrastructure safe from attack and compromise, constantly monitor the system for threats, and respond quickly and appropriately if an attack is detected.


Booting Linux

The Linux boot process refers to the sequence of events that occur when a Linux system is started up. There are several steps involved in this process, including the loading of the bootloader, the kernel, and the initial ramdisk.

One common bootloader used in Linux systems is GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader). GRUB is responsible for loading the Linux kernel and initial ramdisk, as well as providing a menu of boot options for the user to choose from.

When a Linux system is powered on, the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) or UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) system performs a series of checks and initializes the hardware. The BIOS or UEFI system then looks for a bootable device, such as a hard drive or USB drive, and transfers control to the bootloader on that device.

Once the bootloader is loaded, it displays a menu of boot options to the user. This menu can include options such as "normal boot,""recovery mode," or "safe mode." The user can select an option using their keyboard or the default option will be selected after a certain amount of time has passed.

Once the user has selected an option, the bootloader loads the Linux kernel and initial ramdisk into memory. The kernel is responsible for starting the operating system and initializing the hardware. The initial ramdisk is a small file system that contains necessary files and drivers needed to boot the system.

After the kernel and initial ramdisk are loaded, the boot process is handed over to the init system, which is responsible for starting other processes and services necessary for the system to function.

In summary, the Linux boot process involves the loading of the BIOS or UEFI system, the bootloader, the kernel, and the initial ramdisk, and the initialization of the init system. GRUB2 is a commonly used bootloader in Linux systems, and can provide a menu of boot options for the user to choose from.



Booting Mac

The Mac boot process is the sequence of events that occurs when a Mac computer is turned on or restarted. The process involves the loading and initialization of the operating system, as well as the loading of any necessary drivers and services.

The first step in the Mac boot process is the power-on self-test (POST). This is a diagnostic procedure that checks the basic functionality of the computer's hardware, such as the processor, memory, and disk drives. If any issues are detected during the POST, the computer may display an error message or be unable to boot.

Next, the Mac's firmware, which is the software that controls the hardware, begins to load. The firmware checks the bootable devices, such as the hard drive or USB drive, to determine which one to boot from. If the firmware cannot find a bootable device, it may display a "no bootable device" error message.

Once the bootable device is found, the firmware loads the bootloader, which is a small program that loads the operating system. On a Mac, the bootloader is called "boot.efi" and is located on the hard drive or USB drive.

The bootloader loads the operating system kernel, which is the central part of the operating system that controls the hardware and communicates with the rest of the operating system. The kernel then loads the rest of the operating system and any necessary drivers or services.

Once the operating system is fully loaded, the Mac is ready for use.

In addition to the normal boot process, Macs also have a feature called target mode, which allows the computer to be used as an external hard drive for another computer. To enter target mode, the user must restart the Mac and hold down the "T" key while the boot process is occurring. This will cause the Mac to boot into target mode, which allows the computer to be accessed as an external hard drive by another computer. Target mode is often used for transferring files between the two systems or for performing a clean install of the operating system.

Overall, the Mac boot process involves the loading and initialization of the operating system and necessary drivers and services, and may include the use of target mode to access the computer as an external hard drive.



Booting Windows

The Windows boot process is the series of steps that occur when a computer is powered on and begins to load the operating system. The boot process involves the interaction between hardware components, such as the motherboard and processor, and software components, such as the BIOS or UEFI and the operating system.

There are two main types of BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) that can be used in the Windows boot process: legacy BIOS and UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). Legacy BIOS is the traditional BIOS system that has been used in computers for many years. UEFI is a newer system that replaces the legacy BIOS and provides additional features such as support for larger hard drives and faster boot times.

The Windows boot process with BIOS typically follows the following steps:

  1. Power on: When the computer is powered on, the BIOS begins to load.

  2. POST (Power On Self Test): The BIOS performs a series of checks to ensure that the hardware components are functioning properly.

  3. Boot sequence: The BIOS looks for bootable devices, such as a hard drive or USB drive, and selects the first one in the boot order.

  4. MBR (Master Boot Record): The BIOS loads the MBR, which is a small piece of code at the beginning of the bootable device. The MBR contains a bootloader, which is a program that loads the operating system.

  5. Operating system: The bootloader loads the operating system and hands control over to it.

The Windows boot process with UEFI follows a similar sequence, but with some additional steps. UEFI has a built-in boot manager that allows users to select the boot device and provides additional options, such as booting into the BIOS or booting from a USB drive. The UEFI boot process also includes a secure boot feature, which verifies that the operating system has not been tampered with before loading it.

Overall, the Windows boot process involves the interaction between hardware and software components in order to load the operating system and begin the boot process. The type of BIOS, either legacy BIOS or UEFI, can affect the specific steps in the boot process.




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